AH 00.00.00 = author’s conversations or interviews and date of event (as in AH 06.15.10 = author’s conversation or interview on June 15, 2010).
1. In 2012, Forbes magazine, which publishes annual data about the world’s billionaires, counted 1,153 billionaires in the world (http://www.forbes.com). A billion is a thousand millions, in U.S. terminology. In 2005, Bill Gates was worth $46 billion, Warren Buffett $44 billion, and the family of Walmart founder Sam Walton about $90 billion (Reich 2010b:viii). By contrast, the GDP of Kenya in 2006 was $14.4 billion, that of Cameroon $12.5 billion, Zimbabwe $17.8 billion, Lithuania $18.2 billion, Vietnam $39.2 billion, and Morocco $43.7 billion (Economist 2006a). Another telling datum: in the mid-2000S, “The world’s 500 richest people [had] an income of more than $100 billion, not taking into account asset wealth. That exceeds the combined incomes of the poorest 416 million” (United Nations. Human Development Indicators 2006:269).
2. Media attending the Billionaires’ Croquet in Central Park that day included (among many others) the Washington Post, Newsday, Der Spiegel, the Denver Post, CNN, the Newark-based Star Ledger, the Philadelphia Daily News, the American Conservative, WFUV (public radio at Fordham University), NY Channel 1 (Spanish television station), and Direct Listen Channel 9.
3. Phillips 2002b:5. For overviews of contrasting approaches to democracy, see Dunn 1992; Shapiro 2003; and Tilly 2007.
4. Blow 2011:A23; Bartels 2008.
5. DeParle 2011; Reich 2010c:A21.
6. Shiller made this comment during a televised interview with Charlie Rose (Public Broadcasting Service, The Charlie Rose Show, July 30, 2009).
7. Phillips 2002b:xiii–xiv.