Waging War: Alliances, Coalitions, and Institutions of Interstate Violence

By Patricia A. Weitsman | Go to book overview

7
OPERATIONS ODYSSEY DAWN AND UNIFIED
PROTECTOR

THE ARAB SPRING came to Libya in early 2011, bringing peaceful demonstrations against the long-standing repressive regime of Muammar Gadhafi. In the aftermath of the fall of Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak, calls went out on Facebook for a nonviolent protest in Libya against Gadhafi’s government. When the government arrested human rights activist Fathi Tarbel on February 15, it triggered a demonstration in Benghazi in which the government used lethal force.1 Thursday, February 17, 2011, had been designated a day of protests since it was the anniversary of the 2006 killing of protesters in Benghazi by security forces when the protesters attacked the Italian consulate. These demonstrations brought additional crackdowns by the government.2 The violence and demonstrations escalated, bringing with them mounting consternation in the international community over the Gadhafi government’s fierce reaction to the rebellion and protests. Libyan refugees began to flee the country.3 Countries with noncombatant citizens began the process of evacuation.4

Alarm in the international system over the strident response by Gadhafi led France and the United Kingdom to take the initiative in sponsoring United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolutions 1970 (February 26, 2011) and 1973 (March 17, 2011).5 They also advocated for the European Union to adopt sanctions against Gadhafi.6 UNSC Resolution 1970 included an arms embargo and a call for a cease-fire. The situation continued to worsen, however, becoming ever more precarious and perilous for the civilian population. By early March 2011, conversations were underway in the international community as to how to enforce UNSC Resolution 1970 and ensure the safety of the Libyan civilian population.7 On March 17, the UNSC passed Resolution 1973, which called

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Waging War: Alliances, Coalitions, and Institutions of Interstate Violence
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations viii
  • Acronyms xi
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Fighting with Friends 14
  • 3 - Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield 48
  • 4 - Operation Allied Force 74
  • 5 - Operation Enduring Freedom and the International Security Assistance Force 99
  • 6 - Operation Iraqi Freedom and the War in Iraq 132
  • 7 - Operations Odyssey Dawn and Unified Protector 164
  • 8 - Conclusion 188
  • Notes 199
  • Index 265
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