Nature's Robots: A History of Proteins

By Charles Tanford; Jaqueline Reynolds | Go to book overview

Introduction

In September 2000, about the time that the manuscript for this book was being completed, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, part of the US National Institutes of Health, launched the largest explicit molecular project of all time, aiming to solve the three-dimensional structures of 10 000 proteins. The goal is to do this not for just any 10 000 proteins, but to select ones that would represent identifiable protein families, each family representing a group with similar physiological function and/or gene similarities—proteins expected to be sufficiently closely related so that knowledge of one structure can be expected to allow prediction of structures for other members of a family on the basis of much less information than rigorous atom-by-atom measurements. The project is known as the ‘structural genomics initiative’. The work is to be split among seven regionally based research groups. The cost to the institute over the first five years will be $150 000 000 (£100 000 000).

The launching of this project provides a fitting climax to our history of protein science, which takes us from the origins of protein research in the nineteenth century, when the chemical constitution of ‘protein’ was first studied and heatedly debated and when there was as yet no glimmer of the functional potential of substances in the ‘protein’ category, to the determination of the first structures of individual proteins at atomic resolution—when positions of individual atoms were first specified exactly and bonding between neighbouring atoms defined precisely. The numerical explosion of such detailed information from a handful to 10 000 proteins is something we could not have imagined, nor do we intend to dwell on it. Our objective is limited to history, the heroes of the past, who worked mostly alone or in small groups, usually with little support from formal research grants. How did we get from scratch to where we are? That is our question, rather than prediction of the future

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Nature's Robots: A History of Proteins
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 304

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.