Women, Science, and Myth: Gender Beliefs from Antiquity to the Present

By Sue V. Rosser | Go to book overview

The 19th Century

NARIN HASSAN

The Industrial Revolution, the expansion of empire and national progress, and the rise of institutions were conditions that made the 19th century a period of immense ideological, social, and cultural change. The Industrial Revolution impacted not only the kinds of work people did but also where and how they did it. The transformation of the landscape; the shift to an urban from a largely agrarian culture; and the rise of a new, largely professional middle class created sharper divisions between the public and private realms that affected gender roles significantly since women were largely responsible for maintaining domestic harmony in an increasingly active, male-dominated public world. This division of public and private made it a more challenging time for women to enter the world of science since the ideals of femininity often required women play the role of wife and mother during this time when the family was becoming restructured as a symbol of middle-class life. Thus, while science was becoming more institutionalized and connected to largely male-dominated universities and professional societies, domestic roles were ascribed to women, and family life was itself increasingly socially structured and monitored.

Within this period of rapid growth and change, the nature and representation of scientific work was shifting. Formerly, science had been a domain open to the privileged “gentlemen of science,” but the popularization of science and the growth of new fields began to develop a broader and more complex population of scientists; increased cultural interest in science meant that new debates about what constituted science and what it meant to be a scientist were being heard. During this period, the growth and expansion of the publishing industry encouraged the production and dissemination of a range of new written documents. The industrial revolution and progress in paper technology, printing, and marketing allowed for a new mass market of texts and a much broader literate audience. Conduct manuals, medical guides, scientific treatises, garden magazines, novels, and newspapers flooded the marketplace and presented the increasing numbers of literate individuals with a range of material both representing and constructing new images of science and technology. Newspapers and weekly journals allowed individuals to

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Women, Science, and Myth: Gender Beliefs from Antiquity to the Present
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chronological Section- Changes in Myths of Gender over Time 1
  • Antiquity 3
  • Medieval Era 17
  • Renaissance 31
  • The 18th Century 43
  • The 19th Century 61
  • Early 20th Century 79
  • Thematic Section- Concepts of Gender in Different Contexts 93
  • Disciplines - Chemistry 95
  • Physics/Astronomy 103
  • Mathematics 109
  • Computer Science 115
  • Biology 123
  • Psychology 129
  • Medicine 135
  • Technology 141
  • Aspects of Human Biology and Behavior - The Brain 149
  • Cognitive Abilities 155
  • Mental Illness 161
  • Personality/Rationality/Emotionality 167
  • Endocrinology and Hormones 173
  • Menstruation/Menopause/PMS 177
  • Early Modern Health 181
  • Gender/Sex—How Conjoined 187
  • Homosexuality 193
  • Race 201
  • Nature/Nurture 207
  • Institutions - Women’s Education 213
  • Motherhood 223
  • Religion 229
  • Universities 235
  • Federal Agencies 249
  • Industry 259
  • Professional Societies 263
  • Discrimination 273
  • Women Scientists as Leaders 283
  • Nobel Laureates 295
  • Gender and Occupational Interests 319
  • Other Perspectives on Gender and Myths and Beliefs in Scientific Research - Feminist Philosophy of Science 325
  • Biologists Who Study Gender/Feminism 337
  • Historians of Science and Technology Who Focus on Feminism 347
  • Primatologists Who Focus on Females/Gender 357
  • Critiques of Science 365
  • Marxism/Socialism and Feminism/Gender 373
  • Ecofeminism 381
  • Cyberfeminism 387
  • Race, Postcolonial Gender, and Science 393
  • Feminist Science Studies 399
  • Women’s Health Movement 405
  • Science Fiction 419
  • Conclusion 427
  • Appendix of- Statistical Tables 437
  • Glossary 445
  • Bibliography 469
  • Index 481
  • About the Editor 501
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