Encyclopedia of Body Adornment

By Margo Demello | Go to book overview

N

NATIONAL TATTOO ASSOCIATION

The National Tattoo Association (NTA) is one of the oldest and perhaps the bestknown tattoo association in the world. It was started by East Coast tattooist Eddie Funk as The National Tattoo Club of the World in 1976, and it was originally financed by Flo Makofske and Don Eaker at National Tattoo Supply.

NTA began as an equipment supplier, offering legal assistance, technical information, tattoo equipment, and a newsletter (since 1976) to members. It also offers members an ID card and a certificate—suitable for display in one’s studio— thereby giving the tattooist a professional touch. And finally, NTA hosts what was at one time the largest annual tattoo convention in the world; their first convention was in 1979 in Denver. Membership costs $40 per year and is capped at 1,000, with a long waiting list of tattooists and enthusiasts who pay dues as “associate members” for up to three years until a member spot opens. Artists must be sponsored by another artist member in order to join.

Today NTA has shifted its focus from promoting tattooing as an art form to an audience largely suspicious of it to advancing professionalism and safety standards among tattoo artists.

See also: Alliance of Professional Tattooists; Tattoo Shows

Further Readings: Sanders, Clinton. Customizing the Body: The Art and Culture of Tattooing. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1989.


NATIVE AMERICANS

Many Native American tribes used tattooing, piercing, body painting, and other forms of body modification and adornment to mark affiliation and identity, as parts of rites of passage, and as decoration.

A number of Native American tribes, for instance, used tattooing, and tattoos were typically associated with tribal membership, social status, gender, and specific roles. Tattoos were probably brought over with one of the groups of Asian immigrants who came to the Americas from the Bering Strait, possibly between 5000 and 1500 BCE. On the West coast, for example, women often wore chin tattoos that indicated group membership or marital status. Eastern Indians, such as those who lived in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Ontario, often wore tattoos that represented social status, and which were often representational, rather than abstract. Techniques ranged from using sharpened bones or rocks to carve the tattoo into the skin, rubbing into it ash to make a permanent mark, to using porcupine quills dipped in ink, to the use of needles made of fish bones.

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Encyclopedia of Body Adornment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Entries vii
  • Guide to Related Topics xi
  • Preface xv
  • Introduction xvii
  • A 1
  • B 23
  • C 55
  • D 91
  • E 93
  • F 109
  • G 125
  • H 139
  • I 155
  • J 167
  • L 175
  • M 181
  • N 197
  • O 207
  • P 211
  • R 229
  • S 233
  • T 255
  • W 291
  • Y 295
  • Z 297
  • Resource Guide 301
  • Bibliography 305
  • Index 319
  • About the Author 327
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