W

Wang Dongxing (1916–)

Military and political leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP, or Communist Party of China). Wang was a general of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), vice chairman of the CCP, and a Standing Committee member of the Politburo of the Central Committee.

Wang Dongxing was born into a poor peasant family in Yiyang County, central Jiangxi (Kiangsi) Province, in 1916. He joined the Red Army of the CCP and became a party member in 1932. He participated in the Long March of 1934–1935 and later became the political commissar of the field hospital of the Second Red Army. During the Anti-Japanese War of 1937– 1945, he was deputy director of the Political Division of the Public Health Department of the Eighth Route Army. Then he became the political commissar of the Bethune International Peace Hospital. During the Chinese Civil War of 1946–1949, Wang was the deputy chief of staff of the General Office of the CCP Central Committee.

In 1947, Wang became the principal bodyguard of Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) (1893–1976) at Yan’an (Yenan). Wang also served as the deputy director of the General Office of the Secretariat of the Central Committee and the chief of the Security Department of the Central Committee. He participated in several battles during the CCP defense against the Guomindang’s (GMD, or Kuomintang, KMT; the Chinese Nationalists) offensive campaign in northwestern Shaanxi (Shensi) Province. He made evacuation plans and relocated the top CCP leaders such as Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai) (1898–1976), and Ren Bishi during the CCP defense. His security operation and combat command guaranteed the CCP leaders’ safety and enabled the Party Center to stay in Shaanxi and achieve its military and political success throughout the Chinese Civil War.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, Wang was appointed chief of the Security Department of the PRC State Council, deputy director of the Eighth Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security, and vice minister of Public Security. In the early 1950s, he also served as lieutenant governor of Jiangxi Province, director general of the General Office of the Central Committee, director of the Security Department of the Central Committee, and director of the Security Department of the PLA General Staff Department (GSD). In 1955, he was promoted to major general.

After 1955, Wang Dongxing began to command the security force inside Zhongnanhai (the “Middle and Southern Seas,” a palace of the emperors and empresses within the Forbidden City in the center of Beijing which became the home of Mao, Zhou, and other top CCP leaders. Most of the important top CCP, PRC, and PLA meetings, such as the Politburo, were and still are held there). During the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976, Wang was also the commander of the 8341 troops, an elite force of the Beijing Military Region. Wang had absolute responsibility for Mao’s daily activities and

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China at War: An Encyclopedia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Note on Transliteration xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Introduction xix
  • A 1
  • B 17
  • C 27
  • D 99
  • E 109
  • F 119
  • G 131
  • H 155
  • I 181
  • J 183
  • K 201
  • L 219
  • M 255
  • N 295
  • O 333
  • P 341
  • Q 355
  • R 369
  • S 383
  • T 439
  • U 465
  • V 473
  • W 475
  • X 495
  • Y 509
  • Z 525
  • Appendix- Chinese Dynasties and Governments 547
  • Chronology 553
  • Glossary 567
  • Selected Bibliography 571
  • Editor and Contributors 583
  • Index 587
  • About the Editor 605
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