America's Heroes: Medal of Honor Recipients from the Civil War to Afghanistan

By James H. Willbanks | Go to book overview

Fox, John Robert

Born: May 18, 1915

Died: December 26, 1944

Home State: Ohio

Service: Army

Conflict: World War II

Age at Time of Award: 29

Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on May 18, 1915, John Robert Fox grew up in Ohio and graduated from Wyoming High School in 1934. Fox enlisted in Ohio’s 372nd Infantry Regiment, where he served until graduating from Wilberforce University (located in Wilberforce, Ohio). Upon graduation, he received his Army ROTC commission in 1940.

Following his commissioning, Fox attended training at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, and later the Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia. Upon completion of his training, he was assigned to Cannon Company of the 366th Infantry Regiment. The 366th was deployed to North Africa and assigned to the 15th Air Force to secure airfields. In November of 1944, the 366th was attached to the 5th Army, 92nd Infantry Division (the historically all-black Buffalo Soldiers) and moved to Italy to participate in the liberation of Europe.

In November 1944, the 366Thentered combat with the 92nd Infantry Division in the Serchio Valley. During the Battle of the Serchio Valley, in the vicinity of Sommocolonia, Italy, Lieutenant Fox was attached to the 598th Field Artillery Battalion to serve as a forward artillery observer. In this role, Lieutenant Fox was to call in adjustments to bring effective artillery fire on the enemy. On the evening of December 25, 1944, Lieutenant Fox set up his observation post on the second floor of a house in the village. The next morning, the village came under heavy fire from German and Italian forces that had infiltrated the area during the night. The Allied troops, who were greatly outnumbered, were forced to withdraw. Lieutenant Fox stayed in his position to adjust friendly artillery fire to cover the withdrawal of his comrades. As the Germans advanced to pursue the retreating Americans, Fox adjusted the artillery closer and closer to his position. Finally facing overwhelming odds, Fox called in an artillery barrage onto his own position. The fire direction center advised him that he would not survive the barrage; he insisted, saying, “Fire it!” During the ensuing barrage, Fox was killed, but his selfless act delayed the enemy advance. Later, when a counterattack retook the position, they found Lieutenant Fox’s body along with the bodies of approximately 100 Axis soldiers.

Although Lieutenant Fox was recommended for the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) at the time, the paperwork was lost. It was not until April 15, 1982, that Fox was awarded the DSC posthumously. His family had previously received the Bronze Star and Purple Heart he had earned.

Following an investigation commissioned by the Department of Defense in 1993, it was determined that a number of African Americans had not been awarded the Medal of Honor for actions during World War II due to their race. In 1996, Congress approved granting the Medal of Honor to seven African American soldiers from World War II. Lieutenant Fox was one of these men. On January 13, 1997, more than 50 years after Fox gave his life for his comrades, President Bill Clinton presented the Medal of Honor to Fox’s widow, Arlene, in a White House ceremony honoring the seven African American World War II veterans whose earlier awards had been upgraded. The only one of the seven still living was Vernon Baker.

In 2005, the Hasbro Toy Company released an action figure commemorating Lt. John Fox in their GI Joe Medal of Honor series.

Christopher S. Trobridge


Further Reading

Astor, Gerald. The Right to Fight: A History of African Americans in the Military. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 1998.

Converse, Elliott V., III. The Exclusion of Black Soldiers from the Medal of Honor in World War II. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997.

Hargrove, Hondon B. Buffalo Soldiers in Italy: Black Americans in World War II. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1985.

-112-

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America's Heroes: Medal of Honor Recipients from the Civil War to Afghanistan
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Entries ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Introduction xvii
  • Adams, Lucian 1
  • Baca, John P. 2
  • Bacon, Nicky Daniel 4
  • Baker, Vernon 6
  • Baldwin, Frank D. 8
  • Ballard, Donald E. 11
  • Barfoot, Van T. 13
  • Barnum, Harvey C., Jr 14
  • Barrett, Carlton W. 16
  • Basilone, John 18
  • Benavidez, Roy P. 20
  • Birkhimer, William E. 22
  • Blake, Robert 24
  • Bleak, David B. 25
  • Boyington, Gregory 27
  • Brady, Patrick Henry 29
  • Britt, Maurice L. 30
  • Brown, Bobbie E. 32
  • Bucha, Paul William 34
  • Burke, Lloyd L. 36
  • Bush, Robert Eugene 38
  • Butler, Smedley Darlington 40
  • Butterfield, Daniel 42
  • Cafferata, Hector a., Jr 43
  • Carney, William H. 45
  • Cavaiani, Jon R. 48
  • Chamberlain, Joshua L. 49
  • Childers, Ernest 51
  • Cody, William F. 53
  • Cohn, Abraham 55
  • Cole, Robert G. 57
  • Craft, Clarence B. 59
  • Crandall, Bruce P. 61
  • Custer, Thomas W. 63
  • Dahlgren, John Olof 65
  • Daly, Daniel Joseph 67
  • Davila, Rudolph B. 69
  • Davis, Charles W. 70
  • Davis, Raymond G. 73
  • Davis, Sammy L. 74
  • Day, George E. 76
  • Dean, William F. 78
  • Deblanc, Jefferson Joseph 79
  • Dix, Drew Dennis 81
  • Donlon, Roger Hugh C. 84
  • Donovan, William Joseph 85
  • Doolittle, James H. 87
  • Doss, Desmond T. 88
  • Dunham, Jason L. 90
  • Dunham, Russell E. 91
  • Dyess, Aquilla James 93
  • Ehlers, Walter D. 96
  • Evans, Ernest Edwin 98
  • Faith, Don C., Jr 100
  • Finn, John William 102
  • Fletcher, Frank Jack 104
  • Fluckey, Eugene Bennett 105
  • Foley, Robert F. 107
  • Foss, Joseph Jacob 109
  • Fox, John Robert 112
  • Freeman, Ed W. 113
  • Funston, Frederick 115
  • Galer, Robert Edward 117
  • García, Macario 119
  • Gonsalves, Harold 121
  • Gonzalez, Alfredo 123
  • Gordon, Gary I. 125
  • Hagemeister, Charles Chris 126
  • Harmon, Roy W. 128
  • Harrell, William George 130
  • Hatch, John P. 131
  • Hayashi, Shizuya 133
  • Hayes, Webb C. 134
  • Heard, John W. 137
  • Hendrix, James R. 139
  • Hernández, Rodolfo P. 140
  • Herrera, Silvestre S. 142
  • Hooper, Joe R. 144
  • Howard, Oliver O. 146
  • Howard, Robert L. 148
  • Inouye, Daniel K. 150
  • Irwin, Bernard J. D. 154
  • Izac, Edouard Victor Michel 155
  • Jackson, Joe M. 158
  • Jacobs, Jack H. 160
  • Joel, Lawrence 162
  • Kaufman, Benjamin 164
  • Keeble, Woodrow W. 166
  • Kelly, Charles E. 167
  • Kerrey, Joseph R. 169
  • Kisters, Gerry H. 171
  • Kouma, Ernest R. 173
  • Lang, George C. 175
  • Lemon, Peter C. 177
  • Levitow, John L. 178
  • Liteky, Angelo J. 181
  • Livingston, James E. 182
  • Lopez, Jose M. 184
  • Lucas, Jacklyn Harold 186
  • Luke, Frank, Jr 189
  • Mabry, George L., Jr 191
  • Macarthur, Arthur, Jr 193
  • Macarthur, Douglas 195
  • Mackie, John F. 198
  • Mallon, George H. 200
  • Marm, Walter Joseph, Jr 201
  • Martinez, Joe P. 203
  • McCool, Richard Miles, Jr 204
  • McGinnis, Ross A. 206
  • McGinty, John J., III 207
  • McKinney, John R. 209
  • Merli, Gino J. 211
  • Miles, L. Wardlaw 213
  • Miles, Nelson A. 214
  • Millett, Lewis L. 218
  • Miyamura, Hiroshi H. 220
  • Mize, Ola L. 223
  • Moffett, William A. 225
  • Monsoor, Michael A. 226
  • Monti, Jared C. 227
  • Munemori, Sadao S. 229
  • Munro, Douglas Albert 231
  • Murphy, Audie L. 233
  • Murphy, Michael P. 235
  • Murphy, Raymond G. 236
  • Norris, Thomas R. 238
  • Novosel, Michael J. 240
  • O’Hare, Edward Henry 243
  • O’Kane, Richard Hetherington 245
  • Okubo, James K. 246
  • Olive, Milton L., III 248
  • O’Neill, Richard W. 249
  • Page, John U. D. 251
  • Paige, Mitchell 254
  • Parker, Samuel I. 256
  • Pennypacker, Galusha 258
  • Penry, Richard A. 260
  • Pitsenbarger, William H. 262
  • Pittman, John A. 264
  • Pittman, Richard A. 265
  • Pope, Everett Parker 267
  • Pope, Thomas A. 269
  • Rascon, Alfred V. 271
  • Ray, Ronald Eric 273
  • Red Cloud, Mitchell, Jr 275
  • Rickenbacker, Edward V. 278
  • Roberts, Gordon R. 279
  • Rocco, Louis R. 281
  • Rodriguez, Joseph C. 283
  • Roosevelt, Theodore 285
  • Rosser, Ronald E. 287
  • Rubin, Tibor 289
  • Rudolph, Donald E. 291
  • Ruiz, Alejandro R. Renteria 293
  • Sakato, George T. 294
  • Salomon, Ben L. 296
  • Sandlin, Willie 298
  • Sasser, Clarence Eugene 300
  • Schofield, John M. 302
  • Shafter, William R. 303
  • Shoup, David Monroe 305
  • Shughart, Randall D. 307
  • Sickles, Daniel E. 310
  • Sijan, Lance P. 312
  • Simanek, Robert E. 313
  • Sitter, Carl L. 315
  • Smith, Andrew Jackson 317
  • Smith, Paul R. 319
  • Spurrier, Junior J. 320
  • Stockdale, James B. 322
  • Stone, James L. 324
  • Stowers, Freddie 326
  • Thornton, Michael Edwin 327
  • Thorsness, Leo K. 329
  • Titus, Calvin Pearl 332
  • Turner, George B. 333
  • Urban, Matt 335
  • Vandegrift, Alexander Archer 337
  • Vargas, Jay R. 339
  • Versace, Humbert R. 341
  • Wahlen, George Edward 343
  • Wai, Francis B. 345
  • Wainwright, Jonathan M. 347
  • Walker, Dr. Mary E. 349
  • Ware, Keith L. 350
  • Warren, Francis E. 352
  • Watson, George 353
  • Watters, Charles Joseph 354
  • Webb, Alexander S. 358
  • Wetzel, Gary George 360
  • Whiteley, Eli 362
  • Whittington, Hulon B. 363
  • Williams, Hershel Woodrow 365
  • Wilson, Louis Hugh, Jr. 367
  • Wood, Leonard 369
  • Woodfill, Samuel 372
  • York, Alvin C. 373
  • Young, Rodger W. 375
  • Zabitosky, Fred William 377
  • Zeamer, Jay, Jr. 379
  • Recipients of the Medal of Honor 381
  • Double Award Recipients 487
  • Medals of Honor Awarded by Conflict and Service 489
  • Bibliography 493
  • Index 511
  • About the Editor 529
  • Contributors 531
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