American Indian History Day by Day: A Reference Guide to Events

By Roger M. Carpenter | Go to book overview

November

November 1

1872

Commissioner of Indian Affairs Francis A. Walker gives his annual report to Congress today. Walker’s report is a surprising departure from those submitted in the past. Offering a blunt appraisal of Indian affairs, Walker points out that U.S. Indian policy is often schizophrenic:

From Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs

The Indian policy, so called, of the
Government, is a policy, and it is not
a policy, or rather it consists of two
policies, entirely distinct, seeming,
indeed, to be mutually inconsistent
and to reflect each upon the other:
the one regulating the treatment of
the tribes which are potentially hos-
tile, that is, whose hostility is only
repressed just so long as, and so far
as, they are supported in idleness by
the Government; the other regulating
the treatment of those tribes which,
from traditional friendship, from
numerical weakness, or by the force
of their location, are either in-
disposed toward, or incapable of, re-
sistance to the demands of the
Government. The treatment of the
feeble Poncas, and of the friendly
Arriekarees, Mandans, and Gros
Veutres of the north is an example of
the latter; while the treatment of their
insolent and semihostile neighbors,
the Sioux, furnishes an example of
the former.

(Source: The Annual Report of the Commis sioner of Indian Affairs, 1872. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1872, 3–4.)


Books

Hoxie, Frederick E. A Final Promise: The Cam paign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.

Hoxie, Frederick E., ed. Talking Back to Civiliza tion: Indian Voices from the Progressive Era. Boston: Bedford-St. Martin’s, 2001.


Websites

Native Americans and Contact. http://www .calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/themed _collections/subtopic2c.html.

Teaching the Native Americans our A, B, C’s: Lessons on Assimilation, Boarding Schools, and Christianity. http://www.ecommcode .com/hoover/hooveronline/lesson_plans/ NativeAmericanAssimilation.htm.


1872

Another portion of Commissioner Walker’s report emphasized the role of religious societies on Indian reservations. Beginning with Quaker missionaries in 1869, religious organizations were part of President Grant’s “Peace Policy.”

From Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs:

For the year preceding the passage
of the act of july 15, 1870, all superin-
tendents of Indian affairs and Indian
agents, with the exception of those for
the States of Kansas and Nebraska,
were officers of the Army assigned to
duty under the orders of the Indian
Office. In the two States named, how-
ever, the superintendents of Indian
affairs and Indian agents had been for
somewhat more than a year appointed
by the Executive upon the recommen-
dation of the two Societies of Friends,
the appointees being in all cases recog-
nized members of one or the other of
those religious bodies, and, while duly

-355-

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American Indian History Day by Day: A Reference Guide to Events
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • January 1
  • February 47
  • March 87
  • April 121
  • May 145
  • June 177
  • July 221
  • August 247
  • September 291
  • October 319
  • November 355
  • December 377
  • Bibliography 397
  • Index 421
  • About the Author 431
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