The European Union Explained: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact

By Andreas Staab | Go to book overview

Notes

1. Parameters of European Integration

1. It is important to note that the Council of Europe is not an EU institution. Similarly the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, which is related to the Council of Europe, should not be confused with the EU’s European Court of Justice, which is located in Luxembourg.

2. Jean Monnet, a rather illustrious character, was born in France in 1888 and spent his early years working in his father’s cognac business. He was not drafted in World War I because he suffered from nephritis. During World War II and after the fall of France in 1940, he worked for the UK government and was instrumental in organizing supplies for the French Resistance movement. Monnet died in March 1979 at the age of ninety.

3. The WEU began life as the Brussels Treaty Organisation. The Brussels Treaty was signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, and provided for collective self-defense and economic, social, and cultural collaboration between its signatories. In 1954 the Brussels Treaty was modified to include West Germany and Italy, thus creating the Western European Union. The WEU was primarily concerned with increasing Soviet control of Central and Eastern Europe, and committed all signatory countries to the mutual defense of any member.

4. The initial purpose of EURATOM was twofold: it sought to ensure the creation of the necessary conditions for the development of nuclear energy within the community and also worked to guarantee an equitable supply of ores and nuclear fuels. The treaty created the EURATOM Supply Agency, which had the power to purchase fuels for community use and develop a common supply policy based on the principle of equal access to fuel.

5. The Treaty of Rome also established the institutions of the EEC: an Assembly (renamed Parliament at its first meeting), the Council of Ministers, the Commission, and the Court of Justice. The balance between these institutions would evolve as the EEC developed, but the Treaty set an important precedent in securing a supranational decision-making institution in the Commission, while limiting the role of the Parliament and therefore the involvement of European citizens whom that institution ought to represent.

6. British interest in European integration was largely a product of the country’s declining international political prominence, especially in the aftermath of the Suez crisis in 1956. By the end

-205-

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The European Union Explained: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Acronyms xv
  • Tables xix
  • Part One - The Evolution of the European Union 1
  • 1 - Parameters of European Integration 3
  • 2 - Enlarsement 32
  • Part Two - Institutions 47
  • 3 - The European Commission 49
  • 4 - The European Council 56
  • 5 - The Council of Ministers 61
  • 6 - The European Parliament 67
  • 7 - The European Court of Justice 76
  • 8 - Checks and Balances 84
  • Part Three - Policies 91
  • 9 - The Single Market and Competition 93
  • 10 - Regional Rolicy and Cohesion 106
  • 11 - The Common Agricultural Policy 116
  • 12 - Economic and Monetary Union 128
  • 13 - Justice and Home Affairs 141
  • 14 - Common Foreign and Security Policy 151
  • 15 - Trade and the Common Commercial Policy 161
  • 16 - Environment 171
  • 17 - The Sovereign Debt Crisis in the Eurozone 179
  • Outlook- The Future of European Integration 197
  • Notes 205
  • Bibliosraphy 225
  • Index 229
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