Lone Star Muslims: Transnational Lives and the South Asian Experience in Texas

By Ahmed Afzal | Go to book overview

NOTES

NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION

1. For exemplary post-9/11 analyses of Muslim Americans, see: Abu-Lughod 2002; Ahmed 2002; Bakalian and Bozorgmehr 2009; Cainkar 2009; Ewing 2008; W. Haddad 2002; Y. Haddad 2002; 2004; 2011; Hing 2006; Howell and Shryock 2003; Jamal and Naber 2008; Kane 2011; Kibria 2011; Leonard 2005; Maira 2009; Naber 2012; Prashad 2012; Puar 2007; Rana 2011; Reddy 2011; Schmidt 2004. Studies have focused on cultural citizenship and subjectification of South Asian youth in a medium-size New England city (Maira 2009), the Arab American experience in Chicago (Cainkar 2009), Sierra Leonean Muslims and place making in Washington, DC (D’Alisera 2004), Arab American communities in Detroit (Detroit Arab American Study Group 2009), Middle Eastern and Muslim American organizations and individuals in Washington, DC (Bakalian and Bozorgmehr 2009), and Pakistani transmigrants, race and representation in multiple sites (Rana 2011).

2. U.S. regimes of surveillance display “unrestrained pseudo patriotic narcissism” (Said 1988) and pathologize the Muslim as terrorist as a body without history and political context, who only acquires a history after 9/11 (Butler 2004). According to Judith Butler, the liberal secularist interpretation “works as a plausible and engaging narrative in part because it resituates agency in terms of a subject, something we can understand, [and] something that accords with our idea of personal responsibility” (5). In this pseudo-narcissism, the discourse around trauma commemorates and remembers the victims of 9/11 but denies the same to those who have experienced loss, trauma, and injustice as a result of U.S. foreign policy globally (Bacchetta 2002).

3. In using “governmentality” in this chapter and elsewhere in the manuscript, I invoke Michael Foucault’s (1991) use of the term and refer to the art and idea of a government that is not limited to state politics alone but includes a wide range of control and regulatory techniques and applies to a wide variety of objects, ranging from one’s control of the self to the “biopolitical” control of populations. In Foucault’s writings, governmentality is linked to other concepts such as biopolitics and power-knowledge. For a detailed discussion of the term, see Foucault 1991 and Lemke 2001.

4. On May 26, 2011, President Barack Obama signed a four-year extension of three

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