Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism

By Reza Afshari | Go to book overview

Chapter 13
The Right to Freedom of Opinion,
Expression, and the Press

During the 1980s, the UN Special Representatives did not create a separate category for this critical human right to freedom of opinion, expression, and the press, and they revealed almost nothing on its violations. An inert period of human rights violations is one during which no overt claim to rights is made and hence no open violation is reported. After the bloody suppression of the early 1980s, all appeared quiet on the secular front of the Islamic Republic, and the regime’s secular outsiders did not appear in international reports in this category of violations, since the regime had eliminated all meaningful possibilities for their open participation in the national debates. In effect, the clerics had muffled the secular voices in the fields of politics and literature; those who tried to hide their voices in symbolism and allegory presented no serious political threat and were mostly ignored by the intelligence officials. The secular intellectuals and writers dared not apply for the needed permission to engage in open journalistic activities. An authoritarian regime overtly violates human rights if individuals claim them openly. Thus, in the period of inert human rights violations in the early 1990s, the cases that Galindo Pohl reported in this category could not be considered as a true measure of the human rights situation in the country.

In general, during the late 1980s and early 1990s, two small groups of writers and journalists still dared to claim cautiously their rights to freedom of expression and political participation, thus forcing visible violations. The first group were liberal Muslims—mainly the associates of Mahdi Bazargan, the former premier of the Islamic Republic—who originally supported the Islamic revolution. Ayatollah Khomeini grudgingly tolerated their marginal presence during the 1980s. The second raised within the system’s own ranks but gradually became discontented because they lost their previous official positions or influence.

Thus, many of the restrictions noted by international monitors in the early 1990s related to those that limited the freedom of expression of these two groups. Almost no one uttered a word that the clerics could declare

-185-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 411

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.