Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism

By Reza Afshari | Go to book overview

Notes

Preface

1. UN Doc. A/44/620.

2. In the 1980s, Afghanistan, Guatemala, Equatorial Guinea were also among the countries for which special representatives were appointed. Iraq, Cuba, Haiti, Myanmar, Yugoslavia, Somalia, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, and Zaire were added in the 1990s.

3. UN Doc. A/40/874, p. 2.

4. A. Paya, Zendan-e Towhidi (Prison of monotheism) (Germany, 1989); Parvaneh Alizadeh, Khub Negah Komid, Rastagi Hast (Look carefully, it is real) (Paris, 1997); M. Raha, Haqiqat-e Sadeh: Khaterati as Zendanha-ye Zanan-e Jomhuri-ye Islami (Plain truths: Memoirs from women’s prisons in the Islamic Republic), 3 vols. (Germany, 1992–1994); F. Azad, Yadha-ye Zendan (Memories of prisons) (Paris, 1997); Hamid Azadi, Dar-ha va Divar-ha, Khaterati az Zendan-e Evin (Doors and walls: An Evin prisoner’s memoir) (Seattle, 1997); Nima Parvaresh, Nabardi Nabarabar, Gozareshi az Haft Sal Zendan, 1361–1368 (An unequal battle: A report of seven-year imprisonment, 1983–1990) (Paris, 1995); Reza Ghaffari, Khaterat-e Yek Zendani az Zendanha-ye Jomhuri-ye Islami (Memoirs of a prisoner of Islamic Republic’s prisons) (Stockholm, 1998); Shahrnush Parsipur, Khaterat-e Zendan (The memoirs of prison) (Stockholm, 1996). I have also used the unpublished English version of Ghaffari’s memoirs.

5. A few writers like Ali Shirazi and Akbar Sarduzami offer prison experiences as novellas. In addition, a novel presents itself as “a true story of an Iranian woman in Islamic Republic of Iran’s prison.” Masud Noqrehkar, Panchereh-ye Kuchak Sellul-e Man (My small prison’s window) (Los Angeles, 1988).

6. Parsipur, p. 315.

7. UN Doc. E/CN.4/1985/20.


Chapter 1. Islamic Cultural Relativism in Human Rights Discourse

1. Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im, “Islamic Law, International Relations, and Human Rights: Challenges and Response,” Cornell International Law Journal 20, no. 2 (1987): 319. Similar assertions are repeated throughout An-Na‘im’s works.

2. John L. Esposito, Islam and Politics (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1984), p. 213.

3. Al-Sadiq Al-Mahdi, “Islam—Society and Change,” in Voices of Resurgent Islam, ed. John L. Esposito (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 231–232.

-349-

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