The War on Welfare: Family, Poverty, and Politics in Modern America

By Marisa Chappell | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. The Social Security Act provided matching funds to states that wanted to establish an ADC program and allowed states to set specific eligibility requirements, but poverty lawyers and welfare rights activists in the 1960s and 1970s made temporary headway establishing rights to welfare aid.

2. For an overview of the politics and provisions of PRWORA, see R. Kent Weaver, Ending Welfare as We Know It (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000), chap. 9.

3. While the War on Poverty’s planners and boosters explicitly distanced their programs from “welfare”—promising a “hand up rather than a hand out”— contemporary critics tend to conflate the War on Poverty (and the Great Society more generally) with “welfare.”

4. Sections 101 and 401 of H.R. 3734: Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, as passed by both houses of Congress. For Bush’s welfare reform proposals, see Robin Toner and Robert Pear, “Bush’s Plan on Welfare Law Increases Work Requirement,” NYT, 26 February 2002, 23 and Richard W. Stevenson, “Bush Urges Congress to Extend Welfare Law, with Changes,” NYT, 15 January 2003, 18.

5. Office of Policy Planning and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, March 1965), 5, in Lee Rainwater and William L. Yancey, The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1967), 51.

6. Mrs. L. M. Joyce Greene to Mrs. Bruce Benson, 10 August 1971, Series 4, Box 579, Folder “WR Action letters, 1971–72,” LWV Papers.

7. Stephanie Coontz, The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap (New York: Basic Books, 1992), 30; Dennis Deslippe, “Rights, Not Roses”: Unions and the Rise of Working-Class Feminism, 1945–80 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000), 15–21; Dorothy Sue Cobble, The Other Women’s Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America(Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Susan M. Hartmann, “Women’s Employment and the Domestic Ideal in the Early Cold War Years,” in Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 1945–1960, ed. Joanne Meyerowitz (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994), 84–100.

8. Barbara Reskin and Irene Padevic, Women and Men at Work (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge Press, 1994), 150; McKinley L. Blackburn, David E. Bloom, and Richard B. Freeman, “The Declining Economic Position of Less Skilled Men,”

-249-

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