An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle before the NAACP

By Shawn Leigh Alexander | Go to book overview

Notes

PREFACE

Epigraph. Ida B. Wells DP, September 18, 1889.

1. NYA, September 21, 1889; IF, September 28, 1889; and IF, October 5, 1889.

2. C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877– 1913 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1951); C. Vann Woodward, Th e Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966); Edward L. Ayers, Th e Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992); Michael Perman, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888– 1908 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001); August Meier, Negro Thought in America, 1880– 1915: Racial Ideologies in the Age of Booker T. Washington (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1963); Robert L. Factor, Th e Black Response to America: Men, Ideals, and Organization, from Frederick Douglass to the NAACP (Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley, 1970); Leslie H. Fishel, Jr., “Th e North and the Negro, 1865– 1900” (PhD diss., Harvard University, 1953); Heather Cox Richardson, Th e Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post- Civil War North, 1865– 1901 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001); Emma Lou Thornbrough, “Th e National Afro- American League, 1887– 1908,” Journal of Southern History 27, no. 4 (1961): 494– 512; Emma Lou Thornbrough, T. Thomas Fortune: Militant Journalist (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972); Benjamin R. Justesen, Broken Brotherhood: Th e Rise and the Fall of the National Afro- American Council (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2008); and James M. McPherson, Th e Abolitionist Legacy: From Reconstruction to the NAACP (Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1975).

3. DP, October 18, 1889.

4. W. E. B. Du Bois, “Social Planning for the Negro, Past and Present,” Journal of Negro Education 5 (January 1936): 110– 25, 118; and Herbert Aptheker, Afro- American History: The Modern Era (New York: Citadel Press, 1971), 127– 58, 158. See, e.g., David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868– 1919 (New York: Holt, 1993); Patricia Sullivan, Lift Every Voice: The NAACP and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: New Press, 2009); and Gilbert Jonas, Freedom’s Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle Against Racism in America, 1909– 1969 (New York: Routledge, 2005). The one recent example of a change in the scholarship is Benjamin Justesen’s Broken Brotherhood. Justesen gives a detailed account of the Afro- American Council’s national conventions

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An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle before the NAACP
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents ix
  • Preface xi
  • Chapter 1 - Aceldama and the Black Response 1
  • Chapter 2 - "Stand Their Ground on This Civil Rights Business" 23
  • Chapter 3 - Interregnum and Resurrection 66
  • Chapter 4 - Not Just "A Bubble in Soap Water" 98
  • Chapter 5 - To Awaken the Conscience of America 135
  • Chapter 6 - Invasion of the Tuskegee Machine 177
  • Chapter 7 - An Army of Mice or an Army of Lions? 220
  • Chapter 8 - "It Is Strike Now or Never" 262
  • Epilogue 297
  • Abbreviations 301
  • Notes 303
  • Index 375
  • Acknowledgments 380
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