Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry

By Jason Chambers | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. Kathy DeSalvo, “Minority Hiring: New Solutions,” Back Stage (August 14, 1992): 40.

2. On black images in advertisements, see Anthony J. Cortese, Provocateur: Images of Women and Minorities in Advertising (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999); Marilyn Kern-Foxworth, Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Rastus: Blacks in Advertising Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984); William M. O’Barr, Culture and the Ad: Exploring Otherness in the World of Advertising (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994). On blacks in the advertising industry see Jannette L. Dates, “Advertising,” in Split Image: African-Americans in the Mass Media, 2nd ed., ed. Jannette L. Dates and William Barlow (Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1993), 461–93; Stephen Fox, The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1984), 277–84; Meyer L. Stein, Blacks in Communications: Journalism, Public Relations, and Advertising (New York: Julian Messner, 1972), 153–69; Juliet E. K. Walker, The History of Black Business in America: Capitalism, Race, Entrepreneurship (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998), 349–52; Robert Weems, Jr., Desegregating the Dollar: African American Consumerism in the Twentieth Century (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 96–99; Gail Baker Woods, Advertising and Marketing to the New Majority (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1995).

3. The labels of self-identification used by African Americans have varied throughout the twentieth century. The terms “Negro,” “Colored,” “Black,” “Afro-American,” “Black American,” and “African American” (with or without the hyphen) have been used in different periods. Because the dividing lines between these periods are at best blurred, I have chosen to utilize the terms “black” and “African American” throughout the text except in cases where another term was used specifically. On the black middle class, see E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie: The Rise of a New Middle Class in the United States (New York: Free Press, 1957); Bart Landry, The New Black Middle Class (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987); and Charles T. Banner-Haley, The Fruits of Integration: Black Middle-Class Ideology and Culture, 1960–1990 (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994).

4. Fox, The Mirror Makers, 50.

5. Ronald Berman, Advertising and Social Change (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1981), 150; Roland Marchand, Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920–1940 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), 60–65. Estimates for African American consumer spending power in the early twentieth century are unavailable. However, an article entitled “How Negroes Spent Their Incomes, 1920–1945”, estimated black spending power in 1920 to be in excess

-273-

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Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Rise of Black Consumer Marketing 20
  • Chapter 2 - The Jackie Robinsons of Advertising and Selling 58
  • Chapter 3 - Civil Rights and the Advertising Industry 113
  • Chapter 4 - Affirmative Action and the Search for White Collars 157
  • Chapter 5 - The Golden Age 206
  • Epilogue 259
  • Notes 273
  • Index 307
  • Acknowledgments 321
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