Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry

By Jason Chambers | Go to book overview

Index
AAAA. See American Association of Advertising Agencies
Abbott, Robert S., 26
account executive positions, 199–200
activist organizations, 20. See also civil rights movement
advertisements: alteration of copy for black consumers, 53–54; appeal to racial pride in, 32; black deejays’ role in, 53; black experience and effectiveness of, 187; blacks in, 1–2, 114; depictions of life in, 4; dual purposes of, 2; image of racial diversity in, 269; indicators of sociocultural status in, 5–8; invisibility of blacks in, 1, 2; as invitation for patronage, 33; negative effect of, 35–36; negative image of blacks in, 6–9, 131; newspaper revenue from, 21–22; persuasion as objective of, 3; positive images of black life/culture in, 2; racial homogeneity in, 131; racist offenses in, 68–69; to redefine black image, 14–15; relationship of reality and, 5–6; as “salesmanship-onpaper,” 3; secondary discourse of, 133–34; stereotypes in, 5, 6; subservient roles of blacks in, 5. See also commercials
advertisers: avoidance of racial topics by, 160–61; community investment by, 150, 151; fears of association with blacks, 108; and need for major companies and brands, 31, 80; Sullivan’s list of “don’ts” for, 70
advertising: as mechanism for changing image of African Americans, 241; noncelebrity vs. celebrity blacks in, 146–47; social and economic impact of, 159
Advertising Age, 17; on black employment in ad agencies, 265; on black-owned ad agencies, 260; coverage of black-owned advertising firms criticized, 227–28; Davis’s letter supporting Urban League in, 131; letters from Murphy and Hord in, 48–49; Presenters of the Year for, 263; racial integration articles in, 219; study of mainstream agency minority employment, 183–84; and Sullivan’s letter to AAAA, 148; on Young & Rubicam model, 252
advertising agencies. See black-owned advertising agencies; mainstream advertising agencies
advertising industry: acceptance of women in, 10; adversarial relationship of blacks with, 9; black-owned agencies in, 12–14 (see also black-owned advertising agencies); black professionals in, 2–3; and blacks’ struggle for consumer citizenship, 4; city and state of New York vs., 174–82; Creative Revolution in, 207; and “cultural isolation” of blacks, 147; decline of NAACP involvement in, 148; declining employment of blacks in, 266–67; development of black presence in, 19; economic detour in, 13; educational requirements of, 11; gender discrimination in, 171; government pressure on, 174, 204; hiring practices of, 160, 166; imitative nature of, 91; invisibility of blacks in, 11; job mobility for blacks in, 149; lack of opportunity for blacks in, 101; lower pay for blacks in, 149; and New York City and New York State, 174–82; in 1950s, 84–85; postWorld War I growth of, 28, 84–85; racism and discrimination in, 10–11, 13–14; recruitment efforts of, 165–66; refusal to hire experienced blacks, 148–50; rejection of positive image of blacks in, 9–10; responsibility for fair employment in, 159; responsibility for racial diversity message, 159; sense of social responsibilities in, 18; stages of

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Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Rise of Black Consumer Marketing 20
  • Chapter 2 - The Jackie Robinsons of Advertising and Selling 58
  • Chapter 3 - Civil Rights and the Advertising Industry 113
  • Chapter 4 - Affirmative Action and the Search for White Collars 157
  • Chapter 5 - The Golden Age 206
  • Epilogue 259
  • Notes 273
  • Index 307
  • Acknowledgments 321
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