Voices of the English Reformation: A Sourcebook

By John N. King | Go to book overview

2.4. Miles Hogarde, from
The Displaying of Protestants (1556)

Miles Hogarde, or Huggarde (fl. 1553–58), was an artisan who flourished as a controversialist during the reign of Mary I. Although this shoemaker-poet lacked formal education, he underwent self-instruction in theology and both classical and vernacular literature. His voice was the closest Roman Catholic counterpart to those of gospelers active during the reign of Edward VI (see 3.2–3, 4.1–2). Luke Shepherd mocked Hogarde, John Bale Latinized his name as Milo Porcarius (“Hoggish Miles”), and Robert Crowley ridiculed him with the sobriquet Hogherd. Foxe’s Book of Martyrs records that Hogarde participated in the interrogation of Protestants accused of heresy by Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London. In addition to Hogarde’s printed books, some of his writings are preserved in manuscript. Indeed, one of his poems remains extant only in the form in which Crowley printed it for purposes of refutation in Confutation of the Misshapen Answer to the Ballad, Called the Abuse of the Blessed Sacrament (1548).

Published by Robert Caly, The Displaying of Protestants (1556) reverses the dynamic of Bale’s Image of Both Churches (see 1.1.B) by attacking Protestants as heretical adherents of a “false” church opposed to the Church of Rome. Hogarde refutes key Protestant positions by defending ecclesiastical control of religious doctrine and scriptural exposition and by asserting the authority of the pope on the basis of apostolic succession from Saint Peter as the first Bishop of Rome.

SOURCE: STC 13557, A3v–A4r.

REFERENCES: King 1982; Joseph W. Martin, “Miles Hogarde: Artisan and Aspiring Author in Sixteenth-Century England,” Renaissance Quarterly 34 (1981): 359–83.

Now forasmuch as I know that they which commonly do err, being reproved therefore, will immediately make as though they were ignorant what heresy is, and sometime will demand what heresy is, or who is an heretic. To whom, if answer be made according to the definition of learned men: It is any false or wrong opinion, which any man chooseth to himself to defend against the Catholic faith of the universal church. Truth indeed say they. But what meaneth the Catholic Church? Then answer is made. It is that congregation which wholly doth agree in one unity of faith and ministration of sacraments. Which answer when they likewise affirm: Then, proceed they to know whether it be known or unknown, and so forth. Doubtless, the Catholic faith is so known to the world, that neither heretic nor other miscreant can plead ignorance, to learn that truth which leadeth to salvation. For the church is like unto a castle1 standing upon a hill, which cannot be hid, which

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