Free and French in the Caribbean: Toussaint Louverture, Aimé Césaire, and Narratives of Loyal Opposition

By John Patrick Walsh | Go to book overview

3 “Free and French”
La Constitution de la colonie française de Saint-Domingue

23 August 1802, Au cachot

On 7 June 1802 Toussaint was taken hostage by French troops and soon thereafter shipped to France aboard le Héros, a vessel whose nomenclature suddenly conveyed a simple irony for his captor, Napoleon Bonaparte.1 It must have been a theatrical scene: a hero of the protracted drama of the Haitian Revolution was on his way to a tragic death. Toussaint arrived in the harbor of Brest by mid-July. Nearly two weeks later, Bonaparte decreed, “The so-called Toussaint Louverture will be transferred and held prisoner at the Fort de Joux. He will be held in secret, with neither the ability to write nor communicate with any individual other than his servant.”2 Bonaparte’s minister of war, General Berthier, relayed these orders to the local prefect, Jean De Bry, and inquired about the security of the fortress in the Jura, the mountains of eastern France on the border with Switzerland. De Bry responded to his superiors on 15 August: “I have inspected the premises myself, and I can assure you in advance that there will be no difficulty in carrying out the complete execution of the will of the government.”3 Unfortunately for De Bry, the ink had barely dried on his letter when two prisoners at the fort, General d’Andigné and le Comte de Suzannet, escaped in the middle of the night.4

According to d’Andigné, news of Toussaint’s imminent arrival had actually hastened their plans to break out. Their escape brought about draconian security measures.5 In his memoir, d’Andigné recalled that while on the lam he encountered Toussaint: “We entered Fontainebleau just as he had stopped there to dine; fifty dragoons made up

-65-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Free and French in the Caribbean: Toussaint Louverture, Aimé Césaire, and Narratives of Loyal Opposition
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 194

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.