Military Doctrine: A Reference Handbook

By Bert Chapman | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 4
United Nations, North Atlantic
Treaty Organization, and European
Union Military Doctrine

National military doctrine documents are not the only sources students and scholars can use to study this topic. International government organizations (IGOs) such as the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and European Union have become increasingly involved in international military operations and have begun developing unique bodies of military doctrine as a basis for conducting such operations. This chapter will examine the origins and evolution of military operations conducted by these three IGOs and review sample doctrinal literature for these operations, which have generally focused on peacekeeping in various international locales.


United Nations

United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations began in 1948 when the Security Council established an onsite operation of 36 unarmed military observers to preserve a truce after the first Arab-Israeli War.1

UN peacekeeping operations are established by the Security Council, which the United Nations charter designates as the organization primarily responsible for maintaining peace and security. However, financial aspects of peacekeeping operations are managed by the General Assembly. These organizations have delegated to the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) the responsibility for implementing UN peacekeeping objectives.2

Sixty-three UN peacekeeping operations have been conducted or were underway as of April 30, 2008, with 17 of these operations being active. These active operations involve 88,202 uniformed personnel, including soldiers, police, and military observers, from 117 countries. The financial cost of operations from July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008, was approximately $6.8 billion, the cumulative financial cost of all operations from 1948 to the present is about $54 billion, and they have resulted in 2,468 peacekeeper fatalities, as of April 30, 2008.3

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