Mexico Is Not Colombia: Alternative Historical Analogies for Responding to the Challenge of Violent Drug-Trafficking Organizations - Vol. 2

By Christopher Paul; Colin P. Clarke et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER NINE
Tajikistan (1992–2008)

Case Selection Criteria: Warlordism, Resource Insurgency, High Level of Organized Crime

Tajikistan is a collective product of its Soviet past, geography, and historical position as a trafficking route from Asia to Eastern Europe. Tajikistan is also, and perhaps most importantly, an artifact of its 1992–1997 civil war, a conflict that helped set the conditions for its seemingly perpetual unrest. Tajikistan’s civil war killed tens of thousands of people, with many these deaths a result of violence perpetrated to secure food and basic supplies.1 The conflict also left hundreds of thousands of civilians internally displaced and destroyed tens of thousands of homes.2 Remnants and vestiges of Tajikistan’s postindependence conflict still exist today. As Johan Engvall argues, “Independence in Tajikistan de facto meant the destruction rather than creation of the most basic attributes of statehood.”3

Since Tajikistan became independent, it has progressively succumbed to corruption, the illicit narcotics industry, terrorist and

1 John Heathershaw, Post-Conflict Tajikistan: The Politics of Peacebuilding and the Emergence of Legitimate Order, New York: Routledge, 2009, p. 23.

2 International Crisis Group, Tajikistan: An Uncertain Peace, Asia Report No. 30, December 24, 2001, p. 2. See also Jim Nichol, Tajikistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, July 29, 2009, p. 4; Anthony Richter, “Springtime in Tajikistan,” World Policy Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, Summer 1994, p. 81.

3 Johan Engvall, “The State Under Siege: The Drug Trade and Organised Crime in Tajikistan,” Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 58, No. 6, September 2006, p. 833.

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Mexico Is Not Colombia: Alternative Historical Analogies for Responding to the Challenge of Violent Drug-Trafficking Organizations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Contents v
  • Figure and Tables xiii
  • Summary xv
  • Acknowledgments xxix
  • Abbreviations xxxi
  • Chapter One - Colombia (1994–2010) 1
  • Chapter Two - Peru (1980–1992) 23
  • Chapter Three - The Balkans (1991–2010) 53
  • Chapter Four - West Africa (1990–2010) 85
  • Chapter Five - The Caucasus (1990–2012) 119
  • Chapter Six - Somalia (1991–2010) 151
  • Chapter Seven - Angola (1992–2010) 167
  • Chapter Eight - Burma (1988–2012) 183
  • Chapter Nine - Tajikistan (1992–2008) 197
  • Chapter Ten - Afghanistan (2001–2013) 211
  • References 223
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