Mexico Is Not Colombia: Alternative Historical Analogies for Responding to the Challenge of Violent Drug-Trafficking Organizations - Vol. 2

By Christopher Paul; Colin P. Clarke et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER TEN
Afghanistan (2001–2013)

Case Selection Criteria: Warlordism, Resource Insurgency, Ungoverned Spaces, High Level of Organized Crime

The growth of Afghanistan’s illicit economy in general and opium production specifically has transformed the conflict there, along with the Afghan state and economy. The illicit economy, dominated by the opium industry, has grown so large that it is difficult to separate it from Afghanistan’s increasingly trivial licit economy. The funds generated by the illicit economy have not only fueled the violence in Afghanistan, but they have also contributed to widespread corruption and a dysfunctional citizen-state relationship. While at one time the conflict in Afghanistan could have been described as an ideological struggle or an insurgency against foreign invaders and the government that these invaders helped to establish, it is now more of a resource insurgency than anything else. Although ideology and the insurgent’s cause cannot be ignored, the growth of the opium industry, recently valued in the billions of dollars, or roughly half the country’s total GDP,1 has been transformative: The opium trade and violence in Afghanistan have become intertwined. Conflict and violence are now such integral parts of day-to-day life that, as Jonathan Goodhand argues, an end to

1 Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Afghanistan’s Narco War: Breaking the Link Between Drug Traffickers and Insurgents, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 10, 2009, pp. 1, 5. It is estimated that a majority of the heroin sold in Europe and nearly all sold in Russia and Central Asia can be traced to Afghanistan (Lowry Taylor, The Nexus of Terrorism and Drug Trafficking in the Golden Crescent: Afghanistan, thesis, Carlisle, Pa.: U.S. Army War College, 2006, p. 7).

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Mexico Is Not Colombia: Alternative Historical Analogies for Responding to the Challenge of Violent Drug-Trafficking Organizations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Contents v
  • Figure and Tables xiii
  • Summary xv
  • Acknowledgments xxix
  • Abbreviations xxxi
  • Chapter One - Colombia (1994–2010) 1
  • Chapter Two - Peru (1980–1992) 23
  • Chapter Three - The Balkans (1991–2010) 53
  • Chapter Four - West Africa (1990–2010) 85
  • Chapter Five - The Caucasus (1990–2012) 119
  • Chapter Six - Somalia (1991–2010) 151
  • Chapter Seven - Angola (1992–2010) 167
  • Chapter Eight - Burma (1988–2012) 183
  • Chapter Nine - Tajikistan (1992–2008) 197
  • Chapter Ten - Afghanistan (2001–2013) 211
  • References 223
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