Top Down: The Ford Foundation, Black Power, and the Reinvention of Racial Liberalism

By Karen Ferguson | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction
1. McGeorge Bundy, Action for Equal Opportunity (New York: Ford Foundation, 1966).
2. National affairs, “Proposed Budget: Fiscal Year 1970,” June 1968, Budget Papers, Box 8, Ford Foundation Archives (FF), Rockefeller Archive Center; Ford Foundation, Management and Program Trends in the Fifties and Sixties (New York: Ford Foundation, 1971), 47–48.
3. The extensive literature covering the Foundation’s role in founding black studies programs indicates Ford’s essential role in institutionalizing black power. I examine the other initiatives listed in the chapters to follow. See Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007); Noliwe Rooks, White Money/Black Power: The Surprising History of African American Studies and the Crisis of Race in Higher Education (Boston: Beacon Press, 2006); Inclusive Scholarship: Developing Black Studies in the United States (New York: Ford Foundation, 2007).
4. See, in particular, Devin Fergus, Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965–1980 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009); Robert L. Allen, Black Awakening in Capitalist America (New York: Doubleday, 1969); Joan Roelofs, Foundations and Public Policy: The Mask of Pluralism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003); Rooks.
5. Allen J. Matusow, The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1986); Gareth Davies, From Opportunity to Entitlement: The Transformation and Decline of Great Society Liberalism (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996). For a New York–specific example of this argument, see Jim Sleeper, The Closest of Strangers: Liberalism and the Politics of Race in New York (New York: W. W. Norton, 1990). Devin Fergus’s provocative book on liberalism and black power differs from these works in its more sympathetic treatment of liberals, whom he portrays as martyring their cause in order to save the nation in the face of the separatist threat of black nationalism. For other examples of prominent recent scholarship that internalize the trope of black power’s prominent role in the death of postwar racial liberalism, see David Hollinger, Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism (New York: Basic Books, 2000); Matthew Frye Jacobson, Roots Too: White Ethnic Revival in Post–Civil Rights America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006); Gary Gerstle, American Crucible:

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