Islam after Communism: Religion and Politics in Central Asia

By Adeeb Khalid | Go to book overview

Notes

INTRODUCTION

1. In this book, I use the term Central Asia to denote Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, the five countries that emerged as sovereign states from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Now that Afghanistan is back in the news, it is often considered part of Central Asia for reasons of geographical proximity. As will become amply clear in this book, the Amu Darya represented more than the boundary between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union; it demarcated the limits of the social and cultural engineering undertaken by the Soviet regime on its own territory. Afghanistan experienced none of the transformations that make Central Asia what it is today; its virtual destruction in a quarter century of war has given it an entirely different trajectory. We would be unwise to project assumptions about one side of the Amu Darya to the other.

2. Ahmed Rashid, Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia (New Haven, Conn., 2002), 35.

3. To say that Central Asia was transformed is not to claim that it became identical to other parts of the Soviet Union. Western observers of Central Asia, especially those whose access to the region is primarily through Russian sources, often minimize the impact of Soviet rule in the region, largely because Central Asia retained its local peculiarities and did not became an exact copy of Russia. See, for example, the essays in William Fierman, ed., Soviet Central Asia: The Failed Transformation (Boulder, 1991).

4. Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order (New York, 1996). Huntington is hardly the first scholar to invoke civilizations as the building blocks of our world. Civilizational analysis has often appealed to historians trying to discern big patterns in world history, epitomized best by the twelve-volume work of Arnold Toynbee (A Study of History, London,

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Islam after Communism: Religion and Politics in Central Asia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Maps and Tables ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Islam in Central Asia 19
  • Chapter 2 - Empire and the Challenge of Modernity 34
  • Chapter 3 - The Soviet Assault on Islam 50
  • Chapter 4 - Islam as National Heritage 84
  • Chapter 5 - The Revival of Islam 116
  • Chapter 6 - Islam in Opposition 140
  • Chapter 7 - The Politics of Antiterrorism 168
  • Conclusion - Andijan and beyond 192
  • Afterword 204
  • Glossary 211
  • Notes 213
  • Select Bibliography 235
  • Index 243
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