Physics: The First Science

By Peter Lindenfeld; Suzanne White Brahmia | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 4

Forces and Motion: Newton’s
Framework
Newton’s laws of motion
When forces add up to zero: the first law
What force really is: the second law
Units
Inertial mass, gravitational mass, and the principle
of equivalence
Adding forces: vectors
One dimension
Two or more dimensions
Force diagrams
Vector components
More on friction
Object or system?
Momentum and its conservation. Action, reaction,
and Newton’s third lawOne more motion that is everywhere: rotation
Uniform circular motion
Angular momentum and torque
The angular momentum of particles

What does it take to get something to move? You have to push a book to make
it start to slide along the table. You have to throw a ball to make it leave your
hand to fly through the air. The push on the book and that of your hand on the
ball as you throw it are the forces that determine the motion. The book’s motion
depends not only on how hard you push, but also on the table and how smooth
it is. The ball’s motion also depends on forces other than that of your hand. Once
the ball leaves your hand, the hand no longer exerts a force on it. The other forces
continue to act: the earth pulls it down with the force of gravity. And on its way
the air pushes against it and affects the path that it follows.

-57-

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