Biotech: The Countercultural Origins of an Industry

By Eric J. Vettel | Go to book overview

Preface

We have had to run at full speed in order to stand still.

Robert Glaser, October 31, 1969
Dean of Stanford University Medical School
“Message to the Biosciences

The seemingly unlimited reach of powerful biotechnologies, and the attendant growth of the multi-billion-dollar industry, have raised difficult questions about the scientific discoveries, political assumptions, and cultural patterns that gave rise to for-profit biological research. Given such extraordinary stakes, a history of the commercial biotechnology industry must go beyond the predictable attention to scientists, discovery, and corporate sales. It must pursue how something so complex as the biotechnology industry was born, and how it became both a vanguard for contemporary world capitalism and a focal point for polemic ethical debate.

This is the story of the industry behind genetic engineering, recombinant DNA, cloning, and stem-cell research. It is a story about activists and student protestors pressing for a new purpose in science, and about politicians trying to create policy that aids or alters the course of science, and also about the release of powerful entrepreneurial energies in universities and in venture capital that few realized existed. Most of all, this is a story about people—not just biological scientists, but also followers and opponents who knew nothing about the biological sciences yet cared deeply about how research was done and how its findings were used.

There are many paths through this story, but the one followed here runs through the biological sciences at the three major research universities in the San Francisco Bay Area—the University of California at Berkeley, Stanford University, and the University of California Medical Center at San Francisco (UCSF)—during the thirty years following World War II. It is not a detailed summary of all the key discoveries that led to the creation of what is commonly known today as biotechnology,

-8-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Biotech: The Countercultural Origins of an Industry
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page cover
  • Contents 6
  • Preface 8
  • Chapter 1- The Setting, 1946 16
  • Chapter 2- Patronage and Policy 23
  • Chapter 3- The Promise and Peril of the BVL 45
  • Chapter 4- The Ascent of Pure Research 64
  • Chapter 5- Research Life! 114
  • Chapter 6- A Season of Policy Reform 144
  • Chapter 7- Crossing the Threshold 172
  • Chapter 8- Cetus- History’s First Biotechnology Company 201
  • Conclusion- An End 231
  • Notes 244
  • Sources Consulted 282
  • Index 284
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 288

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.