Biotech: The Countercultural Origins of an Industry

By Eric J. Vettel | Go to book overview

Notes

Preface

1. I do not mean to imply that sociological studies of science are unimportant or lack significance, only that a study that places the organization and output of bioscience research in historical context can be equally productive, even informative for such studies. A substantial body of literature on the sociology of science has accumulated in recent years, and spans a wide spectrum of analytic frameworks. Some have borrowed from E. P. Thompson’s celebrated essay on eighteenth-century bread-riots to argue that a particular “moral economy” informed the organization of basic and applied bioscience research in the San Francisco Bay Area. The complex set of relations between bioscientists at all three research universities reveals a set of unstated customs and traditions, or, “moral economies.” Certainly, the language of basic and applied bioscience research emerged out of individual investigator’s own efforts to describe their work. But it also emerged because it offered real advantages within a highly competitive research environment (Steven Shapin, “The House of Experiment in Seventeenth-Century England,” Isis 79 (1988), 373–404). Others disregard questions of power in the experimental workplace and instead conduct ethnographies of laboratory life. Commonly referred to as “production-oriented” studies, these historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science have shown quite convincingly a powerful relationship between scientists’ experimental behavior and epistemologies of scientific knowledge. For instance, in his study of Drosophila geneticists, Robert Kohler has shown how the organization of laboratory research promotes distinctive workplace cultures, and how this culture in turn shapes experimental outcomes (Robert Kohler, Lords of the Fly (Chicago, 1994]). At the same time, scholars such as Daniel Greenberg have shown how political decisions and public policy shapes the organization of scientific research (Daniel Greenberg, The Politics of Pure Science (New York, 1971). For more studies of the curious sociological underpinnings of science and the scientific community, see Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts (Beverly Hills, 1979); Andrew Pickering, ed., Science as Practice and Culture (Chicago, 1992); and Karen Knorr-Cetina, “Tinkering Toward Success: Prelude to a Theory of Scientific Practice,” Theory and Society 8 (1979),347–76.

2. Among many articles in Science on the subject of pure and applied research, see Michael Reagan, “Basic and Applied Research: A Meaningful Distinction?” Science, 17 Mar. 1967, 1383–84. For the article that initiated the debate, see R. E. Marshak, “Basic Research in the University and Industrial Laboratory,” Science, 23 Dec. 1966, 1521–22.

3. Albert Einstein, quoted by Reagan, “Basic and Applied: A Meaningful Dis-

-244-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Biotech: The Countercultural Origins of an Industry
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page cover
  • Contents 6
  • Preface 8
  • Chapter 1- The Setting, 1946 16
  • Chapter 2- Patronage and Policy 23
  • Chapter 3- The Promise and Peril of the BVL 45
  • Chapter 4- The Ascent of Pure Research 64
  • Chapter 5- Research Life! 114
  • Chapter 6- A Season of Policy Reform 144
  • Chapter 7- Crossing the Threshold 172
  • Chapter 8- Cetus- History’s First Biotechnology Company 201
  • Conclusion- An End 231
  • Notes 244
  • Sources Consulted 282
  • Index 284
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 288

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.