Heroes of the Age: Moral Fault Lines on the Afghan Frontier

By David B. Edwards | Go to book overview

Notes

1. INTRODUCTION

1. Sahlins 1981, 1985.

2. White 1981, 14.

3. Ibid., 20.

4. The center of concern in this study is the frontier between British India and Afghanistan (see map 2). This frontier runs south to Baluchistan, but the area that I am primarily interested in is that bordered by Chitral in the north and the tribal territories surrounding the Khyber Pass in the south. The two dominant commercial and political centers in this region are the Afghan city of Jalalabad in the west and the Indian (later Pakistani) city of Peshawar. At the heart of this area, residing in the bare hills and mountains that straddle the border in this area are a number of politically independent Pakhtun tribes, including the Mahmund, Mohmand, Safi, Shinwari, Khogiani, and Afridi. As one moves further from the frontier and the mountains into the broader plains that ring Peshawar in the east and Jalalabad in the west, one encounters more peasant populations that have been traditionally under the control of the state and linked directly to the national economy

5. British control over Afghanistan’s foreign policy remained a sticking point for years and provided one of the explicit rationales for the third and final AngloAfghan war in 1919, a war that was provoked by Abdur Rahman’s grandson, Amir Amanullah Khan (see Adamec 1967).

6. On the invention and spread of the nation-state, see especially Seton-Watson 1977; Anderson 1983; Gellner 1983; and Hobsbawm 1990.

7. One of the leaders of the abortive Panjshir uprising was Ahmad Shah Massoud, who would later gain fame during the jihad as the commander of the Panjshir Valley resistance. Other equally fruitless attacks occurred that same day in Laghman, Surkh Rud, and Paktia. All were organized by the Muslim Youth Organization, which was severely damaged by the failure of these attacks and the capture of most of its leaders.

8. The best example of this sort of analysis applied to Afghanistan is the intro-

-235-

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Heroes of the Age: Moral Fault Lines on the Afghan Frontier
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Maps vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Significant Persons xiii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Making of Sultan Muhammad Khan 33
  • 3 - The Reign of the Iron Amir 78
  • 4 - The Lives of an Afghan Saint 126
  • 5 - Mad Mullas and Englishmen 172
  • 6 - Epilogue 220
  • Notes 235
  • Glossary 271
  • Bibliography 279
  • Index 297
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