Making New York Dominican: Small Business, Politics, and Everyday Life

By Christian Krohn-Hansen | Go to book overview

NOTES

Introduction

1. Some words are in order here on the use of names and pseudonyms in this book. I have used real names of politicians and high- ranking functionaries in New York, and of political and economic leaders and familiar political activists in the Dominican community in New York. All other names of persons, including “ordinary” Dominican immigrants in New York, have been changed. I have used the real names of organizations, associations, and, not least, Dominican and other New Yorkers’ small enterprises and car services— but in a handful of cases I have changed the name of a business or a car service to protect informants’ anonymity.

2. Espaillat kept the seat right up to 2010. In November 2010, he was elected state senator for the 31st Senate District (which encompasses parts of the Upper West Side and northern Manhattan, including Washington Heights and Inwood, and a few sections of the southwestern Bronx, including Riverdale).

3. Based on data supplied by the U.S. Census Bureau.

4. After 1965 a new flow of immigrants arrived in the United States (Foner 2000, 2001). The U.S. Immigration Act of 1965 loosened in practice restrictions on immigration from regions beyond Europe, and since then Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia (but also the Middle East and Africa) have supplied the majority of new immigrants. By the early 1980s Europeans constituted only 11 percent of U.S. immigrants (Sanjek 1998: 62). The 1965 Act “set an annual maximum quota of 20,000 per country within an overall Eastern Hemisphere immigration ceiling of 170,000. Spouses, unmarried minor children, and parents of U.S. citizens were admissible above this ceiling, as were designated groups of refugees…. Latin American and Caribbean immigrants were treated less favorably in the 1965 Immigration Act. Within an annual ceiling of 120,000, Western Hemisphere immigrants could apply only for occupational visas. The per- country limit of 20,000 did not apply, however— mainly to placate Mexico, supplier of the majority of New World immigrants before 1965. As with Eastern Hemisphere immigrants, the spouses, minor children, and parents of U.S. citizens were admitted above the annual ceiling. And in addition to the annual Western Hemisphere quota, 370,000 Cuban refugees entered the United States between 1965 and 1979” (1998: 62–63).

5. The existence and significance of this type of female reciprocity networks among New York’s first- and- second- generation Spanish- speaking migrants (Puerto Ricans,

-269-

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Making New York Dominican: Small Business, Politics, and Everyday Life
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction 1
  • Part - I 29
  • Chapter 1 - From Quisqueya to New York City 31
  • Chapter 2 - Origin Stories 47
  • Part II 91
  • Chapter 3 - From Bodegas to Supermarkets 93
  • Chapter 4 - From Livery Cabs to Black Cars 134
  • Part III 171
  • Chapter 5 - Dominicans and Hispanics 173
  • Chapter 6 - Up against the Big Money 201
  • Chapter 7 - In Search of Dignity 230
  • Conclusion 264
  • Notes 269
  • References 285
  • Index 299
  • Acknowledgments 310
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