Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystems: A Global Perspective

By Torben C. Rick; Jon M. Erlandson | Go to book overview

INDEX
abalone (Haliotis sp.), 285; black (H. cracherodii), 90, 91f; midden, 5f, 12, 90; red (H. rufescens), 5f, 12, 90, 91f; in Santa Barbara Channel, 80, 81, 86, 89–90, 91; in South Polynesia, 24, 27, 34
aboriginal fisheries, 2
Acanthocardia tuberculata (rough cockle), 246t, 251, 259
Acanthuridae (surgeonfish), 113t, 153t, 160
Acipenser (sturgeon): A. oxyrhynchus (Atlantic), 169t, 174f; A. sturio, 251, 255t, 260t, 262t, 267t, 271
Actinopterygii, 111, 169t
Africa, fishing technology in, 4. See also South Africa
agriculture, 157, 168; maize-based, 104, 109–10, 117, 119; Mesoamerican, 104–5; Viking Age, 202, 208, 301. See also horticulture
Ahuítzotl, emperor of Aztecs, 107
Alaska. See Aleutian Islands (Alaska)
albatross (Diomedea epomophora), 24, 27, 31
Alborán Sea, 244, 245t, 246t, 248, 254. See also Gibraltar, Straits of
Aleutian Islands (Alaska), 12, 43–70, 299, 304; background in, 44–47; culture history, 45–47; human demographics in, 47, 58–62, 68–69, 70; kelp forest ecosystem, 62, 65, 66, 69, 301; maritime economy, 47; radiocarbon date list, 50t–52t; sea cows, 62–68, 69; sea urchins in, 45, 48, 49, 53t, 55–58, 61, 62, 68; sites, excavations and analysis, 48–49
alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), 170t
algae, 128, 166, 167f, 291
Allen, M. S., 31
Alosa spp.: A. fallax + A. alosa, 267t; A. pseudoharengus (alewife), 170t
alpaca (Vicugna pacos), 134
Amerindians, 158, 159. See also Native North Americans; specific tribal nation
Anadara spp., 115t
Anarhichas lupus (wolffish), 167f, 170t
anchovies (Engraulidae), 126, 127, 134, 137, 264, 303
Ancistromesus mexicana, 115t
Anderson, Atholl J., 14, 29, 31, 299
Andrus, Fred T., 125, 299
Anguilla spp. (eels), 25; A. anguilla, 232, 267t; A. rostrata, 170t, 202
apex predator, 12, 13; decline in, 166, 172–74, 178, 180, 181. See also specific predator
archaeologists, 2–3, 14, 300, 302, 303, 305
Arctica islandica (quahog), 170t
Arctocephalus. See fur seal
Argyrosomus regius (meagre), 251, 260t, 261, 262t, 267t
Arius sp. (catfish), 106, 112t, 116
Arnold, J. E., 84
Ascidians, 290
Aspitrigla cf. cucculus, 267t
Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), 11, 255t, 266, 267t; in Gulf of Maine, 165, 166, 167f, 169t, 172f, 173, 174 f, 176, 177, 179, 181; in North Sea basin, 215, 223, 224, 225, 231f, 234; in Viking Age, 199–200, 203, 204–5 f, 206, 207f
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), 7, 170t, 202
Atomic Energy Commission, 46
Aubet, M. E., 247f
Auckland Islands, 23, 24
auks, 194, 198
Australia, Aboriginal shell gathering in, 4, 237
Aztec period, in Mexico, 106–8, 120
Bailey, Geoff N., 215, 227f, 228f, 299, 302, 303, 304
Balistidae (triggerfish), 113t
Balsas River, 106, 107, 109
bandera (Ariidae), 106
bank-island system, Caribbean, 149
Barbus sclateri, 262t, 267t
barracouta (Thyrsites atun), 24, 26, 34, 37
barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), 113t, 262t
Barrett, James, 201, 203, 215, 299
bass. See Dicentrarchus spp.; Serranidae
Belone belone, 255t
Bering, Vitus, 62

-309-

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