The Beginnings of Modern Europe (1250-1450)

By Ephraim Emerton | Go to book overview

CHAPTER III
(1300-1409)

The history of the Roman Papacy consists largely in conflicts between the several elements which enter into its composition. We can hardly remind ourselves too often that the pope has always stood for three different things at the same time. He is first the bishop of Rome, second the head of a Roman state, and third the head of such part of the whole Christian world as is willing to acknowledge his leadership. But this combination of powers has always been a source of great difficulty in the papal administration. As bishop of Rome the pope properly owed his existence and was therefore in a way responsible to the clergy and people of Rome (clero et populo Romano). As head of the Roman state he was one among the temporal princes of the World, with all the political burdens and temptations naturally belonging to temporal power. As head of the Christian world again he entered into relations with all the churches of Europe and found himself, as his influence extended, the arbiter of all questions which involved--and which might not?--a religious motive.

THE NEW PAPACY
The Three
Powers of
the Papacy

During the Middle Ages these several sets of duties and obligations had been trying to adjust themselves. The "clergy and people of Rome" had claimed for themselves the exclusive right of choosing and of directing their own bishop, quite regardless of the fact that this bishop when elected had also the larger functions of a temporal prince and of a universal umpire to fulfill. Under this pressure the Papacy had 106

Localism and
Universalism

-106-

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The Beginnings of Modern Europe (1250-1450)
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface v
  • Contents xiii
  • LIST OF MAPS xiv
  • The Beginnings of Modern Europe 1
  • Chapter II- The New Empire 47
  • Chapter III- (1300-1409) 106
  • Chapter IV- The Rise of a Middle Class 164
  • Chapter V- The Italian Republics to 1300 215
  • Chapter VI- The Hundred Years'' War 252
  • Chapter VII- The Age of the Councils 311
  • Chapter VIII- The Age of the Despots in Italy 358
  • Chapter IX- The Renaissance in Italy 461
  • Chapter X- The Northern Renaissance 509
  • Index 535
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