No Child Left behind and the Reduction of the Achievement Gap: Sociological Perspectives on Federal Educational Policy

By Alan R. Sadovnik; Jennifer A. O’Day et al. | Go to book overview

Index

A
Absolute targets, 118
Academic achievement
need for synchronization with graduation rates, 75
TAKS test-taking association with, 81
Academic Performance Index (API), 132–133
Academically Unacceptable status, 89, 90
Acceptable status, 89, 90
test scores in schools with, 259
in Texas Accountability System, 250, 251
Access inequalities, 19
to information about school quality, 211
Accountability, 33, 360–365
and assessment, 4–5
avoidance via state policies, 121
black box of, 97–98, 100
bureaucratic, 33
as centerpiece of NCLB, 97, 126
Chicago’s pioneer role in, 97
combining professional with bureaucratic, 4
conflicting federal and state signals about, 211
conflicting goals of, 77
and conflicts of interest, 103
effect of pressures on administrator inquiry, 198
effects on evaluation of teachers’ activities, 105–108
effects on labeling and evaluation of students, 101–105, 105–108
effects on school culture, 97–98
effects on student classification, 97–98
effects on teachers, 97–98, 108–110
effects on treatment of students, 97–98
encouragement of innovation by, 103
encouragement of special education by, 102
in Goals 2000 program, 15
for graduation rates, 53–54
HISD ratings before and after all students tested/counted, 91
inclusiveness criteria, 66–67
increases in achievement levels vs. equal proficiency through, 326
motivational role of sanctions in, 125
North Carolina initiatives, 228–229
outcome-based in Chicago Public Schools, 33–34
in Philadelphia school reform, 298
policy recommendations, 111–113
principles of smart, 75–76
for private schools funded by voucher programs, 223
professional forms of, 3
punitive spirit of current, 75
questionable effects on closure of achievement gap, 336–337
and retention increases in Chicago schools, 103
shared in teacher learning communities, 183
study data and methods, 100–101
tensions and problems in school-based, 27–28
theoretical framework on effects of, 99–100
underlying mechanisms, 98
uneven school response to policies of, 36
Accountability criteria, 2
Accountability subset, Texas redefinition of, 82
Achievement gap, 295
in black/white 11-year-olds, 331

-383-

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