DRAKE AND THE SPANISH ARMADA
WITH 1588 the final crisis came. Philip -- haughty, gloomy, and ambitious Philip, unskilled in arms, but persistent in his plans -- sat in his palace at Madrid like a spider forever spinning webs that enemies tore down. Drake and the English had thrown the whole scheme of the Armada's mobilization completely out of gear. Philip's well-intentioned orders and counter- orders had made confusion worse confounded; and though the Spanish empire held half the riches of the world it felt the lack of ready money because English sea power had made it all parts and no whole for several months together. Then, when mobilization was resumed, Philip found himself distracted by expert advice from Santa Cruz, his admiral, and from Parma, Alva's successor in the Netherlands.
The general idea was to send the Invincible