The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy

By Dean Moyar | Go to book overview

18
PSYCHOLOGY AND
PHILOSOPHY

Gary Hatfield

Psychology studies the mind and its operations, including sense perception, action, imagination, attention, and thought. Philosophers and scientists have studied such psychological phenomena since the time of the ancient Greeks. The nineteenth century was an important period in the development of psychology. As the century opened, psychology was mainly studied either within medical physiology or as a part of philosophy. By the end of the century, psychology was on the way to establishing itself in university departments as an experimental natural science. The new experimental psychology appropriated the experimental techniques of sensory physiology and the empirical observations and theoretical constructs of philosophical psychology.

In order to understand the development of psychology during the nineteenth century, we must consider psychology during the eighteenth century, when it separated itself from the study of living things in general and became a specialized discipline of its own. In the mid-eighteenth century, several thinkers, both philosophers and medical physiologists, proposed that psychology should be a natural science. They meant that psychology should use careful observations, including some quantitative observations, to study the phenomena of mind and chart the laws of such phenomena. At this time, most authors classified psychological phenomena as products of various mental faculties or mental powers, including sensory capacities, imagination, and memory. Over the course of the century, theorists came more and more to emphasize the laws of association as explanatory factors within psychology. According to such laws, the contents of mental states become “associated” so that, subsequently, when one occurs (in thought or sensation) the other comes forth through association. The law of contiguity says that sensations or ideas that are constantly conjoined (spatially or temporally) in experience become associated; the law of similarity says that sensations or ideas with resembling content become associated. At the start of the nineteenth century, some theorists proposed resolving all psychological phenomena into the laws of association and foregoing any talk of faculties.

During the nineteenth century, psychological thought developed in several distinct contexts. Within the universities, psychology was taught as a distinct subject matter in the faculty (or school) of philosophy. German philosophical psychology often

-522-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 929

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.