Indigenous Nations and Modern States: The Political Emergence of Nations Challenging State Power

By Rudolph C. Rÿser | Go to book overview

NOTES

1 Emerging Modern Nations
1.. Owing to pressures from civil rights groups inside the United States in the mid-1970s, government officials began taking steps to justify internationally the use of economic sanctions against the South African government to force a change in the long-standing apartheid policy, thus further breaking down traditional barriers to “external interference in the internal affairs of states.”
2.. It was the British Commonwealth and the United States of America that objected to Japan’s proposal for the Covenant to contain language that would ensure equal treatment between state members without distinction on account of race or nationality. Ultimately, the strongest advocate for the establishment of the League of Nations, President Woodrow Wilson, led a government that failed to ratify the Versailles Treaty—effectively preventing US membership in the League. Membership in the League of Nations was never universal, including all states in the world. At its peak, membership would reach 59.
3.. Kosovo, formerly a region of Serbia and before that a part of the Yugoslavian state, became independent in 2008. With European states and the United States of America extending recognition immediately after the declaration of independence, membership in the United Nations is nearly automatic.
4.. The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues claims a global aggregate population of about 300 million and the Center for World Indigenous Studies identifies 500 million. The actual number has never been formally established.
5.. Noted cultural geographer Bernard Q. Nietschmann demonstrated in a series of articles and “time-lapsed” maps that human cultures were responsible for “green” places in the world as a result of systematic human interaction with the flora and fauna within their living area.
6.. Dr. Emmanuel Enekwechi, head of the Biafra Foundation, called a news conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. in August 2007 to once again affirm the declaration of Biafra’s independence. His announcement was affirmed by Biafran leader Dr. Ralph Uwazuruike, head of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), who was arrested and charged with treason by the Nigerian government in October 2005.

2 Fourth World Geopolitics
1.. States may compete over control of Fourth World nation territories. Alsatian lands were the focus of conflict between the French Republic and the German state during the middle 20th century. Similarly the Russian Federation in 2008 projected

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