Paleoamerican Odyssey

By Kelly E. Graf; Caroline V. Ketron et al. | Go to book overview

Chapter 22
Entangled Knowledge:
Old Trends and New Thoughts
in First South American Studies

Tom D. Dillehay

ABSTRACT

The peopling of South America has become one of the most intriguing research problems in the anthropo-
logical archaeology of the New World and a topic that requires not only more site discovery, chronology
building, and interregional interpretation, but also new approaches to the diversity of early cultures across
the continent. This paper focuses on two topics that provide different ways to view this diversity and how it
possibly occurred in some regions. These topics are the domestic architecture of the late-Pleistocene culture
of Paiján on the north coast of Peru and the concept of niche construction in certain types of environments.
The wider implications of these themes are discussed, and the nature of the study of New World peopling
over the past few decades is briefly summarized.

KEYWORDS: South America, Peru, Paiján, Niche construction

The archaeological record of the late-Pleistocene period of the Americas, between ~13,000 and 10,000 uncalibrated 14C yr BP, represents the continued spread of human groups into many previously unoccupied areas of North and South America (e.g., Bryan 1991; Dillehay 2000; Dixon 1999; Lavallée 2000; Meltzer 2009; Miotti et al. 2012). It is recognized that although the first South Americans came from North America by way of land or along seacoasts, their adaptations and experiences are far from being the same ones that had been generated centuries before in North America, and had by now become a different kind of dispersed cultural package that effected certain social transformations and land-use strategies once adopted (Bryan and Gruhn 2003; Dillehay 2000). This cultural package was associated with a series of material and spatial cultural forms: different scales and types of economies, base camps and special task localities, intergroup networks, manipulation of favored habitats, and bifacial and unifacial stone-tool industries (Bryan 1973; Dillehay 2012). By the time people first reached the southern tip of South America, at least around 12,000 14C yr BP (all dates are in radiocarbon years), they had developed social, behavioral, and cognitive skills that created an environment and experience more conducive to diverse cultural changes. These skills and changes are evidenced archaeologically by the presence of a wide variety of regional technologies and economies by at least 11,000 BP across the continent, especially in areas of the Andean mountains where different ecological zones were closely juxtaposed.

The purpose of this essay is to focus on various issues relevant to first American studies in South America. Since numerous summaries of the major archaeological sites and interpretative models specific to South America have been published recently, I do not provide a broad synthesis of the continent (see Dillehay 2000, 2009; Flegenheimer 2007; Lavallée 2000; Vialou 2011; Miotti et al. 2012). Instead, I mention briefly a few important recent discoveries and their implications, and then turn to discussing some lingering the-

Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
37256; e-mail:tom.d.dillehay@vanderbilt.edu

-377-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Paleoamerican Odyssey
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 574

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.