The Origin and History of the New York Employing Printers' Association: The Evolution of a Trade Association

By Charlotte E. Morgan | Go to book overview

greater inventions and more radical changes introduced than in the three hundred following the invention. For convenience in presenting the history of the organizations, I have made eight subdivisions more or less coincident with the foregoing. The Colonial, extending from 1693 to 1781, was characterized by the gradual growth of the industry but by no tendency to organize. The second period, extending to about 1830, was characterized by extraordinary expansion, by the introduction of machinery and sundry improvements, by fairly effective labor organizations, and by various transitory combinations on the part of the employers. The third period, extending to 1850, was characterized by the use of power presses, and by the rapid industrialization of the industry, resulting in bitter labor disputes and in the loss of standards by both printers and journeymen. The fourth period, from 1850 to 1865, was one of turmoil brought about by further industrialization and by the Civil War. Typographical Union No. 6 was formed in 1850, and Horace Greeley, its first president, preached the doctrine of cooperation to ensure industrial peace.

In 1865, the fifth period begins with the formal founding of the Typothetae, which interested itself in price-maintenance, in the improvement of printing as an art, and in defensive war against the demands of labor. Finally, came the panic of 1873 and the dissolution of the Typothetae.

The sixth period extends from 1873 to 1906. These years were characterized by cut-throat competition between employers and by bitter struggles between employers and employees. Industrialization was practically completed; the workman became a specialist and large houses like factories took over the bulk of the work. Small one-man shops, however, fought for the casual work and undermined the accepted standards of prices and wages. At the same time the field of competition widened in the book and job trade, for rapid

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The Origin and History of the New York Employing Printers' Association: The Evolution of a Trade Association
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Preface 5
  • Table of Contents 7
  • Introduction - A History of the Organization of Employing Printers in New York City 9
  • Chapter II 22
  • Chapter III 39
  • Chapter IV 47
  • Chapter V 61
  • Chapter VI 71
  • Chapter VIII 109
  • Appendix - Sections from the Contracts for Book and Job Officers 127
  • Bibliography 133
  • Index 137
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