Slave Owners of West Africa: Decision Making in the Age of Abolition

By Sandra E. Greene | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. Studies of African responses to conquest and colonial rule constitute a large body of literature that have seen significant shifts over time in how these responses (often termed resistance and accommodation) have been analyzed. For an overview of these shifts, see Cooper, “Conflict and Connection,” and Crais, “Resistance and Accommodation.”

2. See Greene, “Minority Voices.”

3. For a review of post-abolition responses by the enslaved, see Greene, “Minority Voices.” Efforts by the enslaved to ameliorate their disadvantaged positions in their communities continued well into the colonial period. See, for example, Berndt, “Closer,” and C. A. Brown, “Testing the Boundaries.” Studies that focus on efforts by the enslaved and those of slave descent to address ongoing conditions in the postcolonial period are cited in note 9.

4. On slave owners’ use of petitions and letters to object to the abolition of slavery and threats to relocate to areas outside colonial jurisdiction, see Klein, Slavery and Colonial Rule, 25; Haenger, Slaves and Slave Holders, 115; Runkel, “Perspectives”; Getz, “Case for Africans”; Akurang-Parry, “‘We Shall Rejoice’”; Akurang-Parry, “‘Smattering of Education’”; and for a similar situation in East Africa, Cassanelli, “Ending.” On slave owners’ use of violence or threats of violence, see Berndt, “Closer,” 266–67, 286–87; Klein, Slavery and Colonial Rule, 164, 174; Haenger, Slaves and Slave Holders, 127, 143; Hall, A History, 224–27; and Greene, Sacred Sites, 87–88. On slave owners use of colonial courts, see Roberts, Litigants, 99–123. On slave owners’ redefinition of former slaves as subordinate kin, and on their renegotiation of labor and land relations, see Roberts, “End,” 295–96; Haenger, Slaves and Slave Holders, 125 and 126; Gaibazzi, “Moving Out,” 6–7; and Berndt, “Closer,” 267, 283. On slave owners’ release of former slaves to manage their own family affairs, see Greene, West African Narratives, 142. On the social and cultural politics associated with burials, see Opata, “Remembering Slavery,” 61–62; Saha, “Tabula and Pa Jacob,” 125; and Brivio, “Evoking the Past,” 151, 158. On slave owners’ emancipation of slaves prior to the imposition of colonial laws banning such ownership, see Hogendorn and Lovejoy, “Reform”; and Cassanelli, “Ending,” 312, 317. For examples of slave owners providing other opportunities so that the formerly enslaved gained greater social and economic independence, see Schmitz, “Islamic Patronage.”

5. Miers and Roberts, End of Slavery, 33–37.

6. Wright, Strategies, 21–43; Greene, West African Narratives, 77–102.

7. On the use of the kinship idiom to absorb (or to maintain distinctions) between slaves and their owners when slavery was legal and after, see Lovejoy, The Ideology and Mann, Slavery and the Birth, 220–30.

8. This spirit of imaginative entrepreneurial innovation is discussed by Pier M. Larson, but in terms of the period of legal slavery in Africa. See his article, “Slaving in Africa.”

9. Numerous studies exist on the legacy of slavery in contemporary, postcolonial Africa. See Bellagamba, Greene, and Klein, Bitter Legacy. See also Botte, L’ombre, and Botte, Esclavage moderne. See as well Berndt, “Closer”; de Bruijn and Pelckmans, “Facing Dilemmas”; Hardung, “Curse and Blessing”; Hall, The History, 237–40; and Lecocq, “Bellah Question.”

-89-

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Slave Owners of West Africa: Decision Making in the Age of Abolition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Amegashie Afeku of Keta- Priest, Political Advisor, Businessman, Slave Owner 13
  • 2 - Nyaho Tamakloe of Anlo- Of Chieftaincy and Slavery, of Politics and the Personal 31
  • 3 - Noah Yawo of Ho-Kpenoe- The Faith Journey of a Slave Owner 54
  • 4 - Concluding Thoughts 84
  • Notes 89
  • Bibliography 107
  • Index 121
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