The International Handbook of Suicide Prevention: Research, Policy and Practice

By Rory C. O’Connor; Jane Pirkis | Go to book overview

11
Visualizing the Suicidal Brain
Neuroimaging and Suicide Prevention

Katherin Sudol and Maria A. Oquendo


Introduction

In recent years, suicide has become a worsening global public health issue. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 804,000 people died by suicide in 2012, making it the 15th leading cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2014). But for every person who dies by suicide, it is estimated there are 20 individuals who make attempts (WHO, 2014) although this number is likely to be higher. The impact of suicide, however, goes far beyond the loss of life. Suicide also takes an emotional and financial toll on society. To offer perspective, in 2010 the United States incurred over $44 billion worth of costs in medical and work-related expenses due to suicide alone (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). It is thus imperative that we strengthen suicide research and improve prevention efforts.

Suicide research has focused on its causes, precipitants, and potential methods of prevention and treatment. Studies have explored the neurobiological, biochemical, cognitive, behavioral, genetic, and epigenetic correlates of suicide in an effort to identify suicide-specific biomarkers. Such markers could help clinicians predict suicide risk, move the field toward evidence-based diagnosis, and provide concrete biological treatment targets. Brain imaging has played a crucial role in furthering this goal, allowing researchers to peer into the suicidal brain to explore its functioning in vivo. In this chapter, we examine and synthesize findings from in vivo brain imaging studies of suicidal patients and discuss potential clinical applications of neuroimaging in suicide prevention. Specifically, we focus on suicide attempt, as it is more robustly linked to suicide than is suicidal ideation. We define a suicide attempt as a deliberate act of self-harm, which may or may not result in injury, but which was undertaken with at least some intent to die. When selecting papers for review in the current chapter, we excluded those studying patients whose suicidal behaviors stemmed from neurological disorders or brain injuries—for example, brain trauma, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease—and concentrated on those investigating suicide attempts in the context of psychopathology. Moreover, we mostly selected papers that compared suicide attempters to a nonattempter psychiatric sample and a healthy control group, although the presence of the healthy control group was not mandatory. Our goal was to separate the correlates of suicidal behavior from those

The International Handbook of Suicide Prevention, Second Edition. Edited by Rory C. O’Connor and Jane Pirkis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

-188-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The International Handbook of Suicide Prevention: Research, Policy and Practice
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 823

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.