Environmental Science and International Politics: Acid Rain in Europe, 1979-1989, and Climate Change in Copenhagen 2009

By David E. Henderson; Susan K. Henderson | Go to book overview

3
Roles and
Factions

INDETERMINATE COUNTRIES

The indeterminate countries must be convinced to sign a treaty (or dissuaded from it) by those on the opposing sides of the issue. Many of them would like a treaty but have conditions that must be met to sign.

United States, Australia. These two developed countries have some of the highest per-capita and per $GDP output of greenhouse gases. Both countries have thus far refused to agree to an international treaty.

Brazil, Russia, India, People’s Republic of China (BRIC). These are large countries with rapid development. China will overtake the United States as the largest emitter of carbon dioxide as soon as 2010. China and India have over a billion people each, many of whom seek to attain middleclass status with cars, refrigerators, and other energy-intensive devices. The rapid growth of these countries makes their emissions the greatest challenge for the future. Brazil is home to the Amazon Rainforest. Cutting the trees of the Amazon to meet the lumber needs of the developed world and burning its forests to raise soybeans and cattle for export to developed nations has four global impacts. The burning forests release carbon dioxide, the loss of the forests removes a major sink for carbon, the forests change the albedo of the earth, potentially leading to more warming, and the forests are home to many important species.

Russia is grouped with the other BRIC countries but has some unique issues. The massive contraction of the Russian economy has produced a reduction of emissions relative to the Soviet era, unlike the cases of China and India. Furthermore, as a major producer of oil and natural gas as well as coal, Russia is an important contributor to the problem, and is heavily dependent on oil and gas exports to support its economy. The Russians are, therefore, sympathetic to the reluctance of energy producers to see their income reduced by reducing the use of fossil fuels.

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Environmental Science and International Politics: Acid Rain in Europe, 1979-1989, and Climate Change in Copenhagen 2009
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Note to Instructors viii
  • How to Play These Games 1
  • Contents 8
  • Figures and Tables 11
  • 1 - Historical Background 14
  • 2 - The Game 35
  • 3 - Roles and Factions 41
  • 4 - Core Texts and Supplemental Readings 44
  • Bibliography 106
  • Acknowledgments 109
  • Appendix 1- Introduction to Environmental Philosophy 110
  • Appendix 2- Introduction to Environmental Economics 116
  • Appendix 3- Using Numbers to Make Arguments 119
  • Appendix 4- Study Questions for Reading Assignments 121
  • Contents 124
  • Figures and Tables 127
  • 1 - Historical Background 129
  • 2 - The Game 153
  • 3 - Roles and Factions 159
  • 4 - Core Texts and Supplemental Readings 162
  • Acknowledgments 164
  • Appendix 1- Green House Gases 165
  • Appendix 2- Chemicals in Fossil Fuels 168
  • Appendix 3- Quantitative Look at Combustion Reactions 172
  • Appendix 4- Leaked Draft Document by Danish Delegates 180
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