Muslim Pilgrimage in the Modern World

By Babak Rahimi; Peyman Eshaghi | Go to book overview

CHAPTER TWO
The Hajj and Politics in China

ROBERT R. BIANCHI

In the last thirty years, China’s Hajj has grown slowly and steadily from about one thousand pilgrims in 1992 to five thousand in 2004, ten thousand in 2007, and nearly fifteen thousand in 2015. By international standards, these are modest figures, leaving Chinese Muslims with no more than two-thirds of the pilgrimage quota normally allotted to communities of comparable size.1 Moreover, opportunities to participate in the Hajj from China are very unequally distributed across regions, ethnic groups, classes, genders, and generations. This pattern of restrained growth and selective targeting illustrates the abiding caution that guides China’s political and religious leaders as they try to foster more routine contacts between Chinese Muslims and the Islamic world, their clear preference being a series of small steps and half measures they can carefully monitor and regulate.

The government’s control over Hajj traffic from China is far from complete. Pilgrimage officials estimate that one-quarter to one-third of Chinese Hajjis avoid the state-sponsored program, traveling to Saudi Arabia independently—and often illegally—via third countries, such as Pakistan, Turkey, and Malaysia. Beijing is trying to capture greater market share by expanding services and charter flights for pilgrims, but Hajj officials might stop short of creating a full monopoly if they carve out a niche for private companies offering high-end tours to luxury travelers.2

China’s national Hajj quotas are negotiated annually between Beijing and Saudi Arabia with a tacit agreement to keep the total below international levels until the central government builds up the Hajj infrastructure and strengthens its capacity. As the government’s designated agent overseeing Muslim affairs, the Chinese Islamic Association has sole legal authority for pilgrimage management. The headquarters in Beijing allocates Hajj quotas to the provincial offices, who then distribute places to local districts according to their estimates of the numbers of Muslim residents and the growing demand from registrants who sign up on long waiting lists, which often stretch for a decade or more into the future.

In recent years, the screening criteria have tightened considerably. Prospective pilgrims must be between fifty and seventy years of age. They must

-68-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Muslim Pilgrimage in the Modern World
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 280

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.