The New Leviathan; Or, Man, Society, Civilization and Barbarism

By R. G. Collingwood | Go to book overview

XXVII
FORCE IN POLITICS

27.1. POLITICAL life contains an indispensable element of force. This marks off the life of a body politic from the life of a society, which is like it in many respects; and assimilates it to the life of a family.

27.11. Family life, too, is in part a matter of force, because family life involves looking after children, and children have to be looked after without their consent.

27.12. The body politic, like the family, contains a nursery; in this case a ruled class which is a nursery of rulers as containing human beings in process of education for the business of rule.

27.13. So far as the ruled are not yet capable of ruling and therefore not yet able to rule themselves they must be ruled without their consent by those who are capable of it.

27.14. 'Why must they?' For many reasons. First because they like it and, if it is not done, crave for it. Conversely, because the rulers like it. For a man of weak or undeveloped will nothing is so pleasant as being ordered about; for a man of strong will, as ordering others about.

27.15. Secondly for their own good. Children have to be looked after, not only because they like it, but because being looked after is to be protected from self-inflicted and mutually inflicted injury and death (22.25).

27.16. Thirdly for the good of the rulers. The good of the rulers is to rule; first immanently, to rule themselves, and then transeuntly, to rule others, namely those members of the same body politic who are incapable of rule.

27.17. Fourthly for the good of the entire body politic. For what is to the good both of the rulers and of the ruled is to the good of the body politic as a whole.

27.18. If it is the rulers' duty to pursue the good of the body politic as a whole, it is part of their duty to rule those members of it who cannot rule themselves.

-203-

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The New Leviathan; Or, Man, Society, Civilization and Barbarism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Contents vii
  • Part I - Man 1
  • II - The Relation Between Body and Mind 8
  • III - Body as Mind 14
  • IV - Feeling 18
  • V - The Ambiguity of Feeling 27
  • VII - Appetite 47
  • VIII - Hunger and Love 54
  • IX - Retrospect 61
  • X - Passion 67
  • XI- Desire 74
  • XII - Happiness 83
  • XIII - Choice 90
  • XIV - Reason 99
  • XV - Utility 104
  • XVI - Right 111
  • XVII - Duty 119
  • XVIII - Theoretical Reason 125
  • Part II - Society 130
  • XX - Society and Community 138
  • XXI - Society as Joint Will 148
  • XXII- The Family as a Mixed Community 160
  • XXIII - The Family as a Society 165
  • XXIV - The Body Politic, Social and Non-Social 177
  • XXV - The Three Laws of Politics 184
  • Xxvi Democracy and Aristocracy 192
  • XXVII - Force in Politics 203
  • XXVIII - The Forms of Political Action 212
  • XXIX - External Politics 225
  • XXX - War as the Breakdown of Policy 233
  • XXXI - Classical Physics and Classical Politics 246
  • XXXII - Society and Nature in the Classical Politics 257
  • XXXIII - Decline of the Classical Politics 268
  • Part III - Civilization 280
  • XXXV - What 'Civilization' Means: Specifically 289
  • XXXVI - The Essence of Civilization 299
  • XXXVII - Civilization as Education 308
  • XXXVIII - Civilization and Wealth 318
  • XXXIX - Law and Order 326
  • XL - Peace and Plenty 333
  • Part IV - Barbarism 342
  • XLII - The First Barbarism: The Saracens 351
  • XLIII - The Second Barbarism: The 'Albigensian Heresy' 359
  • XLIV - The Third Barbarism: The Turks 366
  • XLV - The Fourth Barbarism: The Germans 375
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