question, and having identified the seven chief delinquents, had them hanged on the nearest tree, for an example to the rest of the army. It is one of the few cases on record of Charles taking an uncompromisingly stern line, and the occasion of it is significant. For the King hated lawlessness and violence from the bottom of his soul, and as a matter of principle far transcending any personal consideration. He hated it all the more when, committed under his own auspices, it involved a stain on his honour.
One could wish though that old Skippon, than whom no man understood better the troubles and temptations of a soldier's life-- and particularly soldiers so chronically short of food and pay as the Cavalier rank and file--could have found it in his normally generous heart to have begged the poor devils off. One can well conceive that his temper was not of the best under the circumstances. But when, at Southampton, he parted company with the escort that the King had provided to conduct his men to their own lines he did not hesitate to acknowledge that "they had carried themselves with great civility towards him and fully complied with their obligations."
Which shows that Charles's severity was at least not without the effect he had intended.
SECOND NEWBURY AND THE CAVALIER RECOVERY
IT is no wonder if in Cavalier circles the capitulation of Essex's army was esteemed more than enough to compensate for the mere repulse of Rupert's, who after all had brought off his army substantially intact. No sensational consequences had followed on Marston Moor. The Rebel army commanders, when they had reassembled from the various quarters to which they had run away from that battle, were soon as vigorously at loggerheads with one another as Essex and Waller, and the combination fell apart almost at once into its separate elements. The surrender of York, though not of its garrison, having followed inevitably from the Marquis of Newcastle's desertion, the Scottish army had gravitated northwards and devoted its main effort to the reduction of the town of Newcastle; the Fairfaxes sat down before the remaining Cavalier strongholds in Yorkshire; while Manchester