Psychology down the Ages - Vol. 1

By C. Spearman | Go to book overview

CHAPTER IX
OTHER FACULTIES OF KNOWLEDGE

§ 1. Memory. § 2. Imagination. § 3. Various. § 4. Upshot.


§ 1. Memory

So far, our search for the achievements of psychology has found little more than attempts--and those not very successful--to develop further the great doctrine of Plato, Aristotle, and so many others. This is that man possesses two faculties of knowing, which are Intellect and Sense. We have, indeed, also encountered efforts to establish the two further faculties of "intelligence" and "attention". But these showed themselves to be very equivocal and at bottom to rest on the intellect again. In course of time, however, yet another faculty of knowledge was proposed; Memory. To this we will now turn.

Plato himself had considered this candidate for a place among the faculties, but had rejected it as superfluous. For him, one part of memory was of sensorial nature, and therefore had to be joined up with sensory perception. The other half of memory was that of ideas. But in Plato's theory, man's present knowledge of ideas consists solely in remembering them from a previous superhuman existence. That is to say, his knowing and his remembering of the ideas amount to much the same thing.

In Aristotle De Anima, memory received small notice; it was depicted, after the manner of Plato, as

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