An Atlas of African Affairs

By Andrew Boyd; Patrick Van Rensburg | Go to book overview

H. The New Political Map

The political map has been transformed in a mere six years. Before 1955, the only states in Africa not controlled by Europeans were Egypt (9), Ethiopia (11), Liberia (18) and Libya, which had become independent only in 1951 (4). The great change began in the Arab north: Sudan, Morocco and Tunisia achieved independence in 1956 (2, 4, 10). In 1957 Ghana, first of the new 'black' African states, became a sovereign Commonwealth country (19); in 1958 Guinea chose independence from France (14, 15); in 1960 came a flood of new independent states -- Nigeria (20), Somalia (12), the ex-Belgian Congo (23), and no less than 14 former French territories, including Malagasy ( Madagascar) (14, 35). In 1961 the independence of Sierra Leone (18) nearly completed the transformation in West Africa, while that of Tanganyika (30) carried the new wave to the east coast. Africans were also close to political preponderance in Uganda, Kenya and Nyasaland (28, 29, 33), and largely in control in Gambia (18) and French Somaliland (12), although full independence seemed an unlikely prospect for those two small territories as they stood; their future, and that of other little vestiges of the colonial jigsaw pattern, remains uncertain.

Thus 24 new nations appeared on the African map, with 140 million inhabitants. Before 1955, four-fifths of Africa's population had lived under European rule; now, nearly four-fifths live in independent states. Apart from Algeria in the north, where France's inability to crush the rebellion in seven years of fighting points to an inevitable end of French rule (3), and Belgian-held Ruanda-Urundi (26), where independence also seems imminent, colonial rule is virtually reduced to the Portuguese (34) and British dependencies in the south. Of the latter, the Rhodesias (31) are now the scene of a developing political struggle between African nationalists and the hitherto dominant white minority; and the fate of the three British protectorates (37) adjoining South Africa is involved to some extent with the uncertain future of South Africa itself -- a sovereign state still tightly controlled by the three million whites who make up a fifth of its population (36, 38).

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An Atlas of African Affairs
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Foreword 7
  • A. Population 10
  • B. Regions and Barriers 12
  • C. Languages and Peoples 14
  • D. European and Asian Settlement 20
  • E. 'Pre-European' History 22
  • F. Europeans on the Coast 24
  • G. the European 'scramble' 26
  • H. the New Political Map 28
  • I. British and French Heritages 30
  • J. United Nations Activity 32
  • K. Pan-Africanism and Regional Unity 34
  • L. Africa Overseas 36
  • M. Education 38
  • N. Health and Pests 40
  • O. Minerals 42
  • P. Transport 44
  • Q. Power, Development And Research 46
  • 1. the Maghreb 48
  • 2. Morocco and Mauritania 50
  • 3. Algeria 52
  • 4. Tunisia and Libya 54
  • 5. Egypt and Its Neighbours 57
  • 6. Suez Canal 58
  • 7. Suez-Sinai Conflict, 1956 60
  • 8. the Nile 62
  • 9. Egypt 64
  • 10. the Sudan 66
  • 11. Ethiopia 68
  • 12. the Somalis 70
  • 13. West Africa 72
  • 14. Ex-French Africa 74
  • 15. Ex-French West Africa 76
  • 16. 'Equatorial' Africa 78
  • 17. Commonwealth West Africa 80
  • 18- Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia 82
  • 19. Ghana and Its Neighbours 84
  • 20. Nigeria 86
  • 21. Cameroons 88
  • 22. Two Congos 90
  • 23. Post-Belgian Congo 92
  • 24. Lower Congo 94
  • 25. Between the Lakes 96
  • 26. Ruanda-Urundi 98
  • 27. British East and Central Africa 100
  • 28. Uganda 102
  • 29. Kenya 104
  • 30. Tanganyika and Zanzibar 106
  • 31. the Rhodesias 108
  • 32. Katanga and Copperbelt 110
  • 33. Nyasaland 112
  • 34. Angola and Mozambique 114
  • 35. Malagasy (madagascar) 116
  • 36. South Africa and Its Neighbours 118
  • 37. Protectorates and S.W. Africa 120
  • 38. Eastern South Africa 122
  • Index 125
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