states. But the Sudan has withstood Egyptian pressure for unity of the Nile valley (8, 10), and Libya too has resisted Egyptian approaches.
Egyptian aspirations extend not only to the Arab world, but to Africa in general, to which Cairo broadcasts a great volume of propaganda. Cairo has harboured many African political refugees. But the rise of many new independent black African states looks like reducing the opportunities for leadership by the Egyptians in the perspective of Pan-Africanism (K). There remains, however, a basic Egyptian concern with the upper Nile (8), involving Ethiopia and Uganda as well as the Sudan; and a certain orientation towards Cairo in some Moslem areas of Africa, notably Somalia (12).