When Britain took Tanganyika from Germany after 1918, it completed a belt of British territory stretching from the South African border north to Ethiopia. With the Sudan and Egypt also under British control (although not technically British domains), Rhodes's 'Cape to Cairo' dream had come true for a time.
The outstanding difference from the West African territories was the possibility of white rural settlement. Although Kenya and Uganda (28, 29) actually lie on the Equator, they and the adjoining British territories contain large highland plateaux with congenial climates and soils suited to commercial crops such as coffee, tea and tobacco. The Uganda treaties of protection forbade white land ownership, and its scale was limited in Nyasaland (33); but in the Rhodesias (31), Kenya and Tanganyika European immigrants acquired extensive lands and, employing African labour, created plantation economies which transformed these territories (D). Their subsequent political history was mainly one of growing African reaction against the white settlers' predominance, and the erosion of the settlers' position -- furthest advanced in Tanganyika, which in 1961 obtained independence under an African-controlled government (30).
In Central Africa, the creation in 1953 of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (31), despite African protests, seemed to consolidate the whites' position. While formally committed to racial 'partnership', they envisaged an early advance to sovereignty with the Africans still decidedly junior partners; but by 1961 this possibility had vanished, and the federation itself seemed doomed. In East Africa, the balance swung even faster. In the early 1950s, Kenya's white community seemed firmly in the saddle, despite earlier British pledges that African interests must remain paramount; the 1952 Mau Mau terrorist outbreak (29) and the Buganda crisis of 1953 (28) reflected African fears that the settlers would retain power and even extend it through East African federation. But by 1960 Africans were politically the dominant force in the eastern territories. The East African High Commission created in 1948, the joint management of railways and harbours, the common East African currency and other shared services and institutions were no longer seen merely as instruments of white control from Nairobi. African politicians, linked by the Pan African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa (Pafmeca), talked of a federation run by Africans, not whites (K).