An Atlas of African Affairs

By Andrew Boyd; Patrick Van Rensburg | Go to book overview

28. Uganda

In October 1961 it was announced that Uganda was to become fully independent in October 1962.

A British protectorate for over 60 years, Uganda is notable for the role played in its affairs by the strongly organized kingdoms of 'interlacustrine' (25) Bantu peoples -- Ganda, Nyoro, Toro, Nkole, Soga (the Teso and other Nilotic tribes in the north have played only minor parts). At the end of the 18th century, the (Ba-)Ganda replaced the (Ba-)Nyoro as the dominant group. The treaties the British signed from 1890 onward with the Kabaka (monarch) of Buganda, the Ganda kingdom, which contains nearly 2 million of Uganda's 63/4 million inhabitants, left much power to him and his council of chiefs (Lukiko); tribal authority was also left largely undisturbed in the lesser kingdoms, Bunyoro, Toro and Ankole (the Soga had become tributary to the Ganda). The protectorate treaties and agreements forbade white ownership of land in Uganda, which has 10,000 white inhabitants, and 70,000 Indians and other Asians, mainly traders.

Politics under British rule have not, therefore, been complicated by the existence of a white settler community (though Indian commercial predominance is resented). But they have been marked by: Ugandan fear of white domination from Kenya (27, 29); Buganda's demands for recognition, and even independence, as a separate entity; and the resistance of chiefs and traditionalists to the introduction of a more democratic political system. Buganda has dominated events in all three respects.

The Kabaka was exiled from 1953 to 1955, partly for refusing to co-operate in democratic reform. Before he was restored to his throne, the Lukiko had agreed on co-operation; but when universal voting was introduced, the 1961 elections were virtually boycotted in Buganda, where immediate independence as a separate state had been demanded by a Lukiko still largely controlled by traditionalists. (The effect of the boycott was to give an artificial electoral victory to the Catholic-led Democratic party, which won many seats on a very small vote). However, the other cause of the 1953 crisis -- fears aroused by British ministers' talk of forming an East African federation, at a time when Kenya was still a white political stronghold -- had been removed in 1954 by a British pledge that any such federation would need the approval of the people of Uganda.

Entebbe is the protectorate capital, but Kampala is the commercial centre as well as the Ganda capital. Lake fishing and water

-102-

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An Atlas of African Affairs
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Foreword 7
  • A. Population 10
  • B. Regions and Barriers 12
  • C. Languages and Peoples 14
  • D. European and Asian Settlement 20
  • E. 'Pre-European' History 22
  • F. Europeans on the Coast 24
  • G. the European 'scramble' 26
  • H. the New Political Map 28
  • I. British and French Heritages 30
  • J. United Nations Activity 32
  • K. Pan-Africanism and Regional Unity 34
  • L. Africa Overseas 36
  • M. Education 38
  • N. Health and Pests 40
  • O. Minerals 42
  • P. Transport 44
  • Q. Power, Development And Research 46
  • 1. the Maghreb 48
  • 2. Morocco and Mauritania 50
  • 3. Algeria 52
  • 4. Tunisia and Libya 54
  • 5. Egypt and Its Neighbours 57
  • 6. Suez Canal 58
  • 7. Suez-Sinai Conflict, 1956 60
  • 8. the Nile 62
  • 9. Egypt 64
  • 10. the Sudan 66
  • 11. Ethiopia 68
  • 12. the Somalis 70
  • 13. West Africa 72
  • 14. Ex-French Africa 74
  • 15. Ex-French West Africa 76
  • 16. 'Equatorial' Africa 78
  • 17. Commonwealth West Africa 80
  • 18- Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia 82
  • 19. Ghana and Its Neighbours 84
  • 20. Nigeria 86
  • 21. Cameroons 88
  • 22. Two Congos 90
  • 23. Post-Belgian Congo 92
  • 24. Lower Congo 94
  • 25. Between the Lakes 96
  • 26. Ruanda-Urundi 98
  • 27. British East and Central Africa 100
  • 28. Uganda 102
  • 29. Kenya 104
  • 30. Tanganyika and Zanzibar 106
  • 31. the Rhodesias 108
  • 32. Katanga and Copperbelt 110
  • 33. Nyasaland 112
  • 34. Angola and Mozambique 114
  • 35. Malagasy (madagascar) 116
  • 36. South Africa and Its Neighbours 118
  • 37. Protectorates and S.W. Africa 120
  • 38. Eastern South Africa 122
  • Index 125
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