In October 1961 it was announced that Uganda was to become fully independent in October 1962.
A British protectorate for over 60 years, Uganda is notable for the role played in its affairs by the strongly organized kingdoms of 'interlacustrine' (25) Bantu peoples -- Ganda, Nyoro, Toro, Nkole, Soga (the Teso and other Nilotic tribes in the north have played only minor parts). At the end of the 18th century, the (Ba-)Ganda replaced the (Ba-)Nyoro as the dominant group. The treaties the British signed from 1890 onward with the Kabaka (monarch) of Buganda, the Ganda kingdom, which contains nearly 2 million of Uganda's 63/4 million inhabitants, left much power to him and his council of chiefs (Lukiko); tribal authority was also left largely undisturbed in the lesser kingdoms, Bunyoro, Toro and Ankole (the Soga had become tributary to the Ganda). The protectorate treaties and agreements forbade white ownership of land in Uganda, which has 10,000 white inhabitants, and 70,000 Indians and other Asians, mainly traders.
Politics under British rule have not, therefore, been complicated by the existence of a white settler community (though Indian commercial predominance is resented). But they have been marked by: Ugandan fear of white domination from Kenya (27, 29); Buganda's demands for recognition, and even independence, as a separate entity; and the resistance of chiefs and traditionalists to the introduction of a more democratic political system. Buganda has dominated events in all three respects.
The Kabaka was exiled from 1953 to 1955, partly for refusing to co-operate in democratic reform. Before he was restored to his throne, the Lukiko had agreed on co-operation; but when universal voting was introduced, the 1961 elections were virtually boycotted in Buganda, where immediate independence as a separate state had been demanded by a Lukiko still largely controlled by traditionalists. (The effect of the boycott was to give an artificial electoral victory to the Catholic-led Democratic party, which won many seats on a very small vote). However, the other cause of the 1953 crisis -- fears aroused by British ministers' talk of forming an East African federation, at a time when Kenya was still a white political stronghold -- had been removed in 1954 by a British pledge that any such federation would need the approval of the people of Uganda.
Entebbe is the protectorate capital, but Kampala is the commercial centre as well as the Ganda capital. Lake fishing and water