This book has been mainly about United States policy toward free Asia. It has presented a survey of free Asian countries and a succession of different views on how American policy can strengthen these nations individually and collectively.
But a major factor in the Far Eastern situation today is, of course, United States policy toward Communist Asia and Communist Asia's policy toward us. Since the mainland of China fell to the Communists in 1949, many Asian events have been initiated by the Peiping regime. And Communist China has demonstrated uninterrupted hostility toward the United States, imprisoning American diplomats and civilians, intervening in the Korean war on the side of the Communist North Korean aggressors, sending aid that enabled the Communist-led Vietminh to win the crucial battle of Dienbienphu in Indo-China. After the negotiation of the truce for Indo-China, the Chinese Communists reaffirmed their intentions of taking Formosa and stepped up warfare against the islands off the Chinese mainland still held by the Nationalists. They also disclosed at the end of 1954 that 11 American air men captured during the Korean war had been sentenced to prison terms on charges of espionage. Release of the flyers was only brought about in August 1955 after considerable diplomatic pressure and bargaining; about forty imprisoned American civilians remained in Communist hands.
The United States has responded to these acts in various ways. Unlike Britain, India, and other nations, the United States did not extend diplomatic recognition to the Chinese Communist government when it established itself in Peiping, and the American delegation at the United Nations has consistently opposed Communist efforts--the Soviet Union has acted as spokesman for the demands--to have Red China take over the Chinese