the magnitude of the reinstatement response in those that showed the effect did not vary as a function of delay interval.
In summary, the stimuli that are important in the acquisition of drug self-administration are also key factors in reinstatement of extinguished responding during drug abstinence. These include the following: (a) a priming injection of the training drug, (b) access to a higher dose (or lower unit price), and (c) acute or chronic food restriction ( Comer et al., 1995). The transition states of acquisition and reinstatement (relapse) are readily enhanced by these stimuli, and in some respects subjects are more sensitive to them in the transition states than during steady-state drug taking ( Carroll & Comer, 1996). Another consistent finding in the acquisition and reinstatement phases was that alternative nondrug reinforcers, such as palatable dietary substances, or an increase amount of the standard diet reduces drug- seeking behavior possibly by functioning as an economic substitute for the reward value of drugs. Overall, a behavioral economic analysis of these transition states suggests that prevention of acquisition and reinstatement (reacquisition) may be accomplished by increasing the unit price of drugs and offering nondrug alternative reinforcers.
Some of the research reviewed, in this chapter was supported by National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) grants R01 DA02486 and R37 DA03240 to M. E. Carroll. U. C. Campbell was supported by NIDA grant T32 DA07097 ( Sheldon Sparber, Director).
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