Analyzing Problems in Schools and School Systems: A Theoretical Approach

By Alan Kibbe Gaynor | Go to book overview

6
Social Systems Theory

Conflict and ambiguity tend to pose for the individual special problems of adjustment. How each man feels about these problems and how he reacts to them depends upon two further sets of factors. The first of these is his personality, considered as a set of predispositions formed throughout his previous life history. The second includes all his contemporaneous relationships with the members of his role set....Both these sets of factors will affect the behavior of his role sender toward him. Both will also tend to condition his reactions to conflict and ambiguity, and both, finally, may themselves be modified by the particular coping patterns he adopts in response to role conflict and ambiguity of long standing.

-- Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, and Snoek ( 1964, p. 35)


AN OVERVIEW OF THE THEORY

Role theory, that is the conceptual framework that examines people in organizations in terms of the ways in which they meet the expectations other significant people have for their job performance, is in an important sense a corollary to bureaucratic theory. Whereas the theory of bureaucracy ( Weber, 1946, 1947) highlights structural relationships in organizations, especially structures of control and coordination, role theory emphasizes the factors that influence the work behavior of individuals in organizations. These factors include those that shape people's perceptions of their jobs, motivate them to fulfill organizational expectations for job performance, and engender stress for them as they seek to meet the expectations that define their roles in the organization.

As noted in the discussion about bureaucratic theory in chapter 5, Weber focused on describing the purely structural characteristics of large, efficient organizations. Bureaucratic theory describes "functionaries" but makes no mention of people, per se, except in terms of such characteristics as "technical expertise" and how people are organized and managed to carry out their functions effectively and efficiently. What bureaucratic theory lacks is any explicit recognition of what McGregor ( 1960) was later to call "the human side of the enterprise." In broad terms, at least, Weber was aware of the negative possibilities inherent in bureaucracy:

-53-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Analyzing Problems in Schools and School Systems: A Theoretical Approach
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 298

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.